Space Science Reviews

, Volume 71, Issue 1–4, pp 761–796 | Cite as

DARN/SuperDARN

A global view of the dynamics of high-latitude convection
  • R. A. Greenwald
  • K. B. Baker
  • J. R. Dudeney
  • M. Pinnock
  • T. B. Jones
  • E. C. Thomas
  • J. -P. Villain
  • J. -C. Cerisier
  • C. Senior
  • C. Hanuise
  • R. D. Hunsucker
  • G. Sofko
  • J. Koehler
  • E. Nielsen
  • R. Pellinen
  • A. D. M. Walker
  • N. Sato
  • H. Yamagishi
Article

Abstract

The Dual Auroral Radar Network (DARN) is a global-scale network of HF and VHF radars capable of sensing backscatter from ionospheric irregularities in the E and F-regions of the high-latitude ionosphere. Currently, the network consists of the STARE VHF radar system in northern Scandinavia, a northern-hemisphere, longitudinal chain of HF radars that is funded to extend from Saskatoon, Canada to central Finland, and a southern-hemisphere chain that is funded to include Halley Station, SANAE and Syowa Station in Antarctica. When all of the HF radars have been completed they will operate in pairs with common viewing areas so that the Doppler information contained in the backscattered signals may be combined to yield maps of high-latitude plasma convection and the convection electric field. In this paper, the evolution of DARN and particularly the development of its SuperDARN HF radar element is discussed. The DARN/SupperDARN network is particularly suited to studies of large-scale dynamical processes in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, such as the evolution of the global configuration of the convection electric field under changing IMF conditions and the development and global extent of large-scale MHD waves in the magnetosphere-ionosphere cavity. A description of the HF radars within SuperDARN is given along with an overview of their existing and intended locations, intended start of operations, Principal Investigators, and sponsoring agencies. Finally, the operation of the DARN experiment within ISTP/GGS, the availability of data, and the form and availability of the Key Parameter files is discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aarons, J.: 1973,J. Geophys. Res. 78, 7441.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, K.B., Greenwald, R.A., Rouhoniemi, J.M., Dudeney, J.R., Pinnock, M., and Mattin, N.: 1989,Eos Trans. AGU 70 (34), 785.Google Scholar
  3. Bristow, W.A., Greenwald, R.A., and Samson, J.M.: 1993,J. Geophys. Res., in press.Google Scholar
  4. Buneman, O.: 1963,Phys. Rev. Letts. 10, 285.Google Scholar
  5. Burke, W.J., Kelley, M.C., Sagalyn, R.C., Smiddy, M., and Lai, S.T.: 1979,Geophys. Res. Letts. 6, 21.Google Scholar
  6. Cahill, R.A., Greenwald, R.A., and Nielsen, E.: 1978,Geophys. Res. Letts. 5, 687.Google Scholar
  7. de la Beaujardiere, O., Alcayde, D., Fontanari, J., and Leger, C.: 1991,J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5723.Google Scholar
  8. Dudeney, J.R., Rodger, A.S., Pinnock, M., Ruohoniemi, J.M., Baker, K.B., and Greenwald, R.A.: 1991,J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 53, 249.Google Scholar
  9. Dungey, J.W.: 1956,J. Atmos. Terr. Res. 9, 304.Google Scholar
  10. Farley, D.T.: 1963,J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6083.Google Scholar
  11. Fejer, B.G., and Kelley, M.C.: 1980,Rev. of Geophys. and Space Phys. 18, 401.Google Scholar
  12. Fejer, B.G., Reed, R.W., Farley, D.T.: Swartz, W.E., and Kelley, M.C.: 1984,J. Geophys. Res. 89, 187.Google Scholar
  13. Foster, J.C.: 1983,J. Geophys. Res. 88, 981.Google Scholar
  14. Freeman, M.P., Ruohoniemi, J.M., and Greenwald, R.A.: 1991,J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15, 735.Google Scholar
  15. Greenwald, R.A., Ecklund, W.L., and Balsley, B.B.: 1975,J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3635.Google Scholar
  16. Greenwald, R.A., Weiss, W., Nielsen, E., Thomson, N.R.: 1978,Radio Sci. 13, 1021.Google Scholar
  17. Greenwald, R.A., and Walker, A.D.M.: 1980,Geophys. Res Letts. 7, 745.Google Scholar
  18. Greenwald, R.A., Baker, K.B., and Villain, J.-P.: 1983,Radio. Sci. 18, 1122.Google Scholar
  19. Greenwald, R.A., Baker, K.B., Hutchins, R.A., and Hanuise, C.: 1985,Radio Sci. 20, 63.Google Scholar
  20. Greenwald, R.A., Baker, K.B., Ruohoniemi, J.M., Dudeney, J.R., Pinnock, M., Mattin, N., Leonard, J.M., and Lepping, R.P.:1990,J. Geophys. Res. 95, 8057.Google Scholar
  21. Haldoupis, C., Schlegel, K., and Nielsen, E.:1993,Annales Geophys. 11, 283.Google Scholar
  22. Hanuise, C., Villain, J.-P., Crochet, M.: 1981,Geophys. Res. Letts. 8, 1083.Google Scholar
  23. Hanuise, C., Senior, C., Cerisier, J.-C., Villain, J.-P., Greenwald, R.A., Ruohoniemi, J.M., and Baker, K.B.: 1993,J. Geophys. Res. 98, 17387.Google Scholar
  24. Heelis, R.A.: 1984,J. Geophys. Res. 89, 2873.Google Scholar
  25. Heppner, J.P., and Maynard, N.C.: 1987,J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4467.Google Scholar
  26. Inhester, B., Baumjohann, W., Greenwald, R.A., and Nielsen, E.: 1981,J. Geophys. 49, 155.Google Scholar
  27. Keskinen, M.J., Mitchell, H.G., Fedder, J.A., Satuanarayana, P., Zalesak, S.T., and Huba, J.D.: 1988,J. Geophys. Res. 93, 137.Google Scholar
  28. Knox, F.B.: 1964,J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 26, 239.Google Scholar
  29. Kueppers, F., Untiedt, J., Baumjohann, W., Lange, K., and Jones, A.G.: 1979,J. Geophys. 46, 429.Google Scholar
  30. Kunkel, T., Baumjohann, W., Untiedt, J., and Greenwald, R.A.: 1986,J. Geophys. 59, 73.Google Scholar
  31. McNamara, A.G., McDiarmis, D.R., Sofko, G.J., Koehler, J.A., Forsyth, P.A., and Moorcroft, D.R.: 1983,Adv. Space Res. 2, 145.Google Scholar
  32. Nielsen, E., and Greenwald, R.A.: 1979,J. Geophys. Res. 84, 4189.Google Scholar
  33. Nielsen, E. and Schlegel, K.: 1983,J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5745.Google Scholar
  34. Nielsen, E., W. Guettler, E.C. Thomas, C.P. Stewart, T.B. Jones and A. Hedberg, 1983,Nature 304, 712.Google Scholar
  35. Nielsen, E., and Schlegel, K.: 1985,J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3498.Google Scholar
  36. Ossakow, S.L., and Chaturvedi, P.K.: 1979,Geophys. Res. Letts. 6, 332.Google Scholar
  37. Pinnock, M., Rodger, A.S., Dudeney, J.R., Baker, K.B., Newell, P.T., Greenwald, R.A., Greenspan, M.E.: 1993,J. Geophys. Res. 98, 3767.Google Scholar
  38. Reid, G.C.: 1968,J. Geophys. Res. 73, 1627.Google Scholar
  39. Richmond, A.D. and Y. Kamide, 1988,J. Geophys. Res. 93, 5741.Google Scholar
  40. Robinson, T.R.: 1994,Annales Geophys., in press.Google Scholar
  41. Ruohoniemi, J.M., Greenwald, R.A., Baker, K.B., Villain, J.-P., and McCready, M.A.: 1987,J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4553.Google Scholar
  42. Ruohoniemi, J.M., Greenwald, R.A., Villain, J.-P., Baker, K.B., Newell, P.T., and Meng, C.-I.: 1988,J. Geophys. Res. 93, 12,871.Google Scholar
  43. Ruohoniemi, J.M., Greenwald, R.A., Baker, K.B., Villain, J.-P., Hanuise, C., and Kelly, J.: 1989,J. Geophys. Res. 13, 463.Google Scholar
  44. Samson, J.C., Greenwald, R.A., Ruohoniemi, J.M., Frey, A., and Baker, K.B.: 1990,J. Geophys. Res. 95, 7693.Google Scholar
  45. Senior, C., Fontaine, D., Caudel, G., Alcayde, D., Fontanari, J.: 1990,Annales Geophysicae 8, 257.Google Scholar
  46. Simon, A.: 1963,Phys. Fluids 15, 1507.Google Scholar
  47. Tsunoda, R.T., Barons, M.J., Owen, J., and Towle, D.M.: 1979,Radio Sci. 14, 1111.Google Scholar
  48. Villain, J.-P., Caudal, G., Hanuise, C.:1985,J. Geophys. Res. 90, 8433.Google Scholar
  49. Waldock, J.A., Jones, T.B., and Nielsen, E.: 1985,Nature 313 204.Google Scholar
  50. Walker, A.D.M., Greenwald, R.A., Stuart, W.F., and Green, C.A.: 1979,J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3373.Google Scholar
  51. Woodman, R.F., and La Hoz, C.: 1976,J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5447.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Greenwald
    • 1
  • K. B. Baker
    • 1
  • J. R. Dudeney
    • 2
  • M. Pinnock
    • 2
  • T. B. Jones
    • 3
  • E. C. Thomas
    • 3
  • J. -P. Villain
    • 4
  • J. -C. Cerisier
    • 5
  • C. Senior
    • 5
  • C. Hanuise
    • 6
  • R. D. Hunsucker
    • 7
  • G. Sofko
    • 8
  • J. Koehler
    • 8
  • E. Nielsen
    • 9
  • R. Pellinen
    • 10
  • A. D. M. Walker
    • 11
  • N. Sato
    • 12
  • H. Yamagishi
    • 12
  1. 1.Applied Physics LaboratoryThe Johns Hopkins UniversityLaurelUSA
  2. 2.British Antarctic SurveyNatural Environment Research CouncilCambridgeEngland
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsLeicester UniversityLeicesterEngland
  4. 4.Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l'EnvironnementCentre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueOrléansFrance
  5. 5.Centre d'Etude des Environnement Terrestre et PlanétairesCentre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueSaint MaurFrance
  6. 6.Laboratoire de Sondages Electromagnetiques de l'Environnement TerrestreCentre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueToulonFrance
  7. 7.Geophysical InstituteUniversity of AlaskaFairbanksUSA
  8. 8.Department of PhysicsUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  9. 9.Max Planck Institut für AeronomyLindau am HarzGermany
  10. 10.Finnish Meteorlogical InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  11. 11.University of NatalDurbanRepublic of South Africa
  12. 12.National Institute of Polar ResearchTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations