Fertilizer research

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 149–154

Human urine - Chemical composition and fertilizer use efficiency

  • H. Kirchmann
  • S. Pettersson
Article

Abstract

Stored human urine had pH values of 8.9 and was composed of eight main ionic species (> 0.1 meq L−1), the cations Na, K, NH4, Ca and the anions, Cl, SO4, PO4 and HCO3. Nitrogen was mainly (> 90%) present as ammoniacal N, with ammonium bicarbonate being the dominant compound. Urea and urate decomposed during storage. Heavy metal concentrations in urine samples were low compared with other organic fertilizers, but copper, mercury, nickel and zinc were 10–500 times higher in urine than in precipitation and surface waters. In a pot experiment with15N labelled human urine, higher gaseous losses and lower crop uptake (barley) of urine N than of labelled ammonium nitrate were found. Phosphorus present in urine was utilized at a higher rate than soluble phosphate, showing that urine P is at least as available to crops as soluble P fertilizers.

Key words

heavy metals ionic composition 15N- and32P-tracer plant nutrients pot experiment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersson A (1977) Heavy metals in Swedish soils: On their retention, distribution and amounts. Swedish J Agric Res 7: 7–20.Google Scholar
  2. Bremner JM (1982) Nitrogen-urea. In: Page AL et al. (eds) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, 2nd edition, pp 699-709. Agronomy Series No. 9. Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  3. Cai GX, Zhu ZL, Trevitt ACF, Freney JR and Simpson JR (1986) Nitrogen loss from ammonium bicarbonate and urea fertilizers applied to flooded rice. Fert Res 10: 203–215Google Scholar
  4. Fried M (1954) Quantitative evaluation of processed and natural phosphates. Agric Food Chem 2: 241–244Google Scholar
  5. Geigy Scientific Tables (1981) Vol. 1. Ciba Geigy Limited. Basel, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  6. Guyton A (1986) Textbook of Medical Physiology. W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. Hallman L (1960) Klinische Chemie und Mikroskopie, 9. Auflage. Thieme-Verlag, Stuttgart, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  8. Keeney DR and Nelson DW (1982) Nitrogen- Inorganic Forms. In: Page AL et al. (eds) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, 2nd edition, pp 643-698. Agronomy Series No. 9. Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  9. Kemppainen E (1989) Nutrient content and fertilizer values of livestock manure with special reference to cow manure. Ann Agric Fenn 28: 163–284Google Scholar
  10. Kirchmann H and Witter E (1991) Växtnäringsmängder i husdjursgödsel och tätortsavfall - potentiell recirkulation. In: Global Resurshushållning, pp 103–109. Lantbrukskonferensen 1991, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala, Sweden (In Swedish)Google Scholar
  11. Kirchmann H and Widén P (1994) Separately collected organic household wastes. Chemical composition and composting characteristics. Swedish J Agric Res 24: 3–12.Google Scholar
  12. Kungl. väg- och vattenbyggnadsstyrelse (1966) Undersökning av blandningar av faeces och urine beträffande biokemisk syreförbrukning samt totalhalt kväve och fosfor. Publikationsserie Vatten och Avlopp. Pu 8.6. Stockholm, Sweden (In Swedish)Google Scholar
  13. Li CK and Chen RY (1980) Ammonium bicarbonate used as a nitrogen fertilizer in China. Fert Res 1: 125–136Google Scholar
  14. Marquardt RR (1983) A simple spectrophotometric method for the direct determination of uric acid in avian excreta. Poultry Sci 62: 2106–2108.Google Scholar
  15. Rydberg C;, Kylberg LH, von Zweigbergk G and Ljung EW (1922) Jordbrukslära för skolor och självstudium. Fjärde upplaga. Fritzes Bokförlags Aktiebolag, Stockholm, Sweden (In Swedish)Google Scholar
  16. SAS Statistical Analysis System (1985) Users Guide: Statistics. Version 5 edition. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  17. SNV (1993) Metallerna och miljön. Rapport 4135. Statens Naturvårdsverk, Solna, Sweden (In Swedish)Google Scholar
  18. SNV (1987) Tungmetaller - förekomst och omsättning i naturen. Monitor 1987. Stantens Naturvårdsverk, Solna, Sweden (In Swedish)Google Scholar
  19. SNV (1980) Infiltration av hushållsavloppsvatten. Statens Naturvårdsverkets Meddelande 4. Solna, Sweden (In Swedish)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Kirchmann
    • 1
  • S. Pettersson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil SciencesSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations