Fertilizer research

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 61–87

Large granules, nests or bands: Methods of increasing efficiency of fall-applied urea for small cereal grains in North America

  • Yadvinder-Singh
  • S. S. Malhi
  • M. Nyborg
  • E. G. Beauchamp
Article

Abstract

In North America where the climate is cool enough only one crop is grown yearly, N fertilizers are sometimes applied in the previous fall rather than in the spring for fall- or spring-sown cereal grains. However, in areas where snow accumulates in winter, fall application of N fertilizers is generally inferior to spring application. Substantial nitrification takes place in winter and subsequent N loss occurs primarily in early spring by denitrification after the snow melt. Immobilization of N is also greater with fall- than spring-applied N fertilizers. Nitrogen is more efficiently retained in the soil as NH4 and thus more effectively used by plants if formation of nitrite (NO2) and NO3 is reduced or prevented by inhibiting nitrification. The nitrification is reduced when urea is placed in bands, because of high pH, ammonia concentration and osmotic pressure in the soil. The rate of nitrification is further reduced when urea is placed in widely-spaced nests (a number of urea prills placed together at a point below the soil surface) or as large urea granules (LUG) by reducing contact between the nitrifying bacteria and the NH4 released upon urea hydrolysis. A further reduction in nitrification from LUG can be obtained by addition of chemical nitrification inhibitors (such as dicyandiamide (DCD)) to LUG. The concentration of a chemical inhibitor required to suppress nitrification decreases with increasing granule size. The small soil-fertilizer interaction zone with placement of urea in nests or as LUG also reduces immobilization of fertilizer N, especially in soils amended with crop residues. The efficiency of fall-applied N is improved greatly by placing urea in nests or as LUG for small cereal grains. Yields of spring-sown barley from nests of urea or LUG applied in the fall are close to those obtained with spring-applied urea prills incorporated into the soil. Delaying urea application until close to freeze-up is also improved the efficiency of fall-applied N. This increased effectiveness of urea nests or LUG is due to slower nitrification, lower N loss over the winter by denitrification, and reduced immobilization of applied N. Fall application of LUG containing low rates of DCD slows nitrification, reduces over-winter N loss, and causes further improvement in yield and N uptake of winter wheat compared to urea as LUG alone in experiments in Ontario; in other experiments in Alberta there is no yield advantage from using a nitrification inhibitor with LUG for barley. Placement of LUG or nests of urea in soil is an agronomically sound practice for reducing N losses. This practice can eliminate or reduce the amount of nitrification inhibitor necessary to improve the efficiency of fall-applied urea where losses of mineral N are a problem. The optimum size of urea nest or LUG, and optimum combination of LUG and an efficient nitrification inhibitor need to be determined for different crops under different agroclimatic conditions. The soil (texture, CEC, N status), plant (winter or spring crop, crop geometry, crop growth duration and cultivar) and climatic (temperature, amount and distribution of precipitation) factors should be taken into account during field evaluation of LUG. There is a need to conduct region-specific basic research to understand mechanisms and magnitudes of N transformations and N losses in a given ecosystem. Prediction of nitrification from LUG or urea nests in various environments is needed. In nitrification inhibition studies with LUG and chemical nitrification inhibitors, measurements of nitrifier activity will be useful. Finally, there is need for development of applicators for mechanical placement of LUG or urea prills in widely-spaced nests in soil.

Key words

Band placement barley cereal grains fall-applied N fertilizer efficiency large urea granules LUG method of placement nest placement nitrification time of application urea fertilizer wheat 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aleem MIH, Engel MS and Alexander M (1957) The inhibiton of nitrification by ammonia. Bacteriol Proc Soc Am Bacteriologista 57: 9Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amberger A and Vilsmeier K (1982) Turnover of15N-urea,15N-ammonium sulfa-nitrate with addition of dicyandiamide under aerobic conditions in the soil. Z Pflanzen Bodenkunde 145: 550–556Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson OE and Boswell FC (1964) The influence of low temperature and various concentrations of ammonium nitrate on nitrification in acid soils. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 28: 525–529Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson OE and Purvis ER (1955) Effect of low temperature on nitrification of ammonium in soils. Soil Sci 80: 313–318Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anthonisen AC, Loehr RC, Prakassam TBS and Srnath EG (1976) Inhibition of nitrification by ammonia and nitrous acid. J Water Pollution Contr Fed 48: 835–852Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ashworth J, Briggs GG, Evans AA and Matala J (1977) Inhibition of nitrification by Ni carbon disulphide and trithiocarbonate. J Sci Fd Agric 28: 673–683Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aomine S (1978) Movement of ammonium in paddy soils in Taiwan. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 24: 571–581Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aulakh MS and Rennie DA (1984) Transformation of fall-applied nitrogen-15-labelled fertilizers. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48: 1184–1189Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aulakh MS, Rennie DA and Paul EA (1982) Gaseous nitrogen losses from cropped and summer-fallowed soil. Can J Soil Sci 62: 187–196Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baldwin IT, Wolson RK and Reiners WA (1983) Protein binding phenolics and the inhibition of nitrification in subalpine balsam fir soils. Soil Biol Biochem 15: 419–423Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beauchamp EG (1977) Slow release N fertilizers applied in fall for corn. Can J Soil Sci 57: 487–496Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Belser LW (1982) Inhibition of nitrification. In: Advances in Agricultural Microbiology, NS Suba Rao (ed.), pp. 267–293. Butterworth and Co Ltd, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bingham FT, Champman HG and Page AL (1954) Solution culture studies of nitrite toxicity to plants. Soil Sci Soc Am J 18: 305–308Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boon B and Laudelout H (1962) Kinetics of nitrite oxidation byNitrobacter winogradskyi Biochem J 85: 440–447Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boswell FC (1971) Comparison of fall, winter or spring N-P-K fertilizer applications for corn and cotton. Agron J 63: 905–907Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Boswell FC, Nelson LR and Bitzer MJ (1976) Nitrification inhibitor with fall applied versus split nitrogen applications for winter wheat. Agron J 68: 737–740Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boswell FC, Putral JG and Anderson OE (1974) Comparison of fall-applied N under formed beds with conventional spring N application for corn production. Agron J 66: 374–377Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bremner JM and Krogmeier MJ (1989) Evidence that the adverse effect of urea fertilizer on seed germination in soil is due to ammonia formed through hydrolysis of urea by soil urease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 8185–8188Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Broadbent FE, Tyler KB and Hill GN (1957) Nitrification of ammoniacal fertilizers in some California soils. Hilgardia 27: 247–267Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chalk PM, Keeney DR and Walsh LM (1975) Crop recovery and nitrification of fall and spring applied anhydrous ammonia. Agron J 67: 33–37Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Christianson CB and Cho CM (1983) Chemical denitrification in frozen soils Soil Sci Soc Am J 47: 38–42Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Court MN, Stephen RC and Waid JS (1964) Toxicity as a cause of the efficiency of urea as a fertilizer. 1. Review. J Soil Sci 15: 42–48Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cox WJ and Reisenauer HM (1973) Growth and ion uptake by wheat supplied nitrogen as nitrate, or ammonium, or both. Plant Soil 38: 363–380Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Creamer RL and Fox RH (1980) The toxicity of banded urea or diammonium phosphate to corn as influenced by soil temperature and pH. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44: 296–300Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Darrah PR, Nye PH and White RE (1985) Modelling growth responses of soil nitrifiers to additions of ammonium sulphate and ammonium chloride. Plant Soil 86: 426–439Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Darrah PR, White RE and Nye PH (1985) Simultaneous nitrification and diffusion in soil. I. The effects of the addition of a low level of ammonium chloride. J Soil Sci 36: 281–291Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dumenil L, Meldrum HR and Pesek J (1954) When to fertilize, fall or spring. Iowa Farm Sci 9: 571–574.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Field-Ridley G (1975) Nitrogen movement in two Manitoba soils. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Flaig W, Nagar B, Sochtigant H and Tietjen C (1977) Organic materials and soil productivity. FAO Soils Bull 35Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Frye WW (1977) Fall- vs spring-applied sulphure-coated urea, uncoated urea and sodium nitrate for corn. Agron J 69: 278–282Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gaudin R (1988) L'ammonial NH3, urea ele' pour comprendre l'efficacite des supergranules d' uréa en riziculture irriguéa. L' Agron Trop 43: 30–36Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gasser JKR (1970) Nitrification inhibitors - their occurrence, production and effects of their use on crop yields and composition. Soils Fert 33: 547–554Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gomes SL and Loynachan TE (1984) Nitrification of anhydrous ammonia related to nitrapyrin and time-temperature interactions. Agron J 76: 9–12Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Harada T and Kai H (1968) Studies on the environmental conditions controlling nitrification in soil. I. Effects of NH4 and total salts in media on the rate of nitrification in soil. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 14: 20–26Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Harapiak JT, Timmermans JG and Flore NA (1982) Benefits of deep banding fertilizer. In:. Proceedings of Annual Manitoba Soil Science Meeting, pp. 187-195, 11–12 Jan. 1982, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Available from Manitoba Department of Agriculture, Winnipeg, Canada)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hauck RD (1972) Synthetic slow release fertilizers and fertilizer amendments. In: Organic Chemicals in the Soil Environment, Part B, CAI Goring and JW Hamker (eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hauck RD (1981) Nitrogen fertilizer effects on nitrogen cycle processes. In: Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycles, Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm), FE Clark and R Rosswall (eds.) 33: 303–314Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hauck RD (1984) Significance of nitrogen fertilizer microsite reactions in soil. In: Nitrogen in Crop Production, RD Haucket al. (eds.), pp. 507–519. Am Soc Agron, Madison, Wisconsin, USAGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hauck RD and Stephenson HF (1965) Nitrification of N fertilizers. Effect of N source, size and pH of the granule, and concentration. J Agric Food Chem 13: 486–492Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Heaney DJ and Nyborg M (1988) Overwinter transformations of nitrate derived from soil and15N-labelled potassium nitrate. Soil Sci Soc Am J 52: 667–671Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Isensee AR and Walsh CM (1971) Influence of banded fertilizer on the chemical environment surrounding the band. I. Effect on pH and solution nitrogen. J Sci Food Agric 22: 105–109Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Izaurralde RC, Kissel DE and Cabrera ML (1990) Simulation model of banded ammonia in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54: 917–922Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jacobsen JS, Westerman RC and Claypool PL (1986) Distribution of applied anhydrous NH3 in soil and germination hazard to winter wheat. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 1606–1613Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Johnson DD and Guenzi WD (1963) Influence of salts on ammonium oxidation and carbon dioxide evolution from soil. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 27: 663–666Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jones RW and Hedlin RA (1970) Ammonium, nitrite and nitrate accumulation in three Manitoba soils as influenced by added ammonium sulphate and urea. Can J Soil Sci 50: 331–335Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Juma NG and Paul EA (1983) Effect of a nitrification inhibitor on N immobilization and release of15N from nonexchangable ammonium and microbial biomass. Can J Soil Sci 63: 167–175Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Larsen JE and Kohnke H (1946) Relative merits of fall- and spring-applied nitrogen fertilizer. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 11: 378–383Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lees M and Simpson JR (1957) The biochemistry of the nitrifiying organisms. 5. Nitrite oxidaton byNitrobactor. Biochem J 65: 297–305Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Leitch RH (1973) Comparison of uptake of applied ammonium and nitrate nitrogen by crops. M. Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liu SL, Varsa EC, Kapusta G and Mburu DM (1984) Effect of etridiazol and nitrapyrin treated N fertilizers on soil mineral N status and wheat yields. Agron J 76: 265–270Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Malhi SS and McGill WB (1982) Nitrification in three Alberta soils: Effect of temperature, moisture and substrate concentration. Soil Biol Biochem 14: 393–399Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Malhi SS and Nyborg M (1979a) Rate of hydrolysis of urea as influenced by thiourea and pellet size. Plant Soil 51: 177–186Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Malhi SS and Nyborg M (1979b) Nitrate formation during winter from fall-applied urea. Soil Biol Biochem 11: 439–441Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Malhi SS and Nyborg M (1983) Field study of the fate of fall-applied15N-labelled fertilizers in three Alberta soils. Agron J 75: 71–74Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Malhi SS and Nyborg M (1984) Inhibiting nitrification and increasing the efficiency of fall-applied urea by placing in bands with thiourea. Plant Soil 77: 193–206Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Malhi SS and Nyborg M (1985) Methods of placement for increasing the efficiency of N fertilizers applied in the fall. Agron J 77: 27–32Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Malhi SS and Nyborg M (1986) Increase in mineral N in soils during winter and loss of mineral N during early spring in north-central Alberta. Can J Soil Sci 66: 397–409Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Malhi SS and Nyborg M (1988a) Effect of ATC, N-Serve 24E and thiourea nitrification inhibitors on yield and N uptake of barley fertilized with fall-applied N. Plant Soil 105: 223–229Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Malhi SS and Nyborg M (1988b) Control of nitrification of fertilizer N: Effect of inhibitors, banding and nesting. Plant Soil 107: 245–250Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Malhi SS and Nyborg M (1990a) Evaluation of methods of placement of fall-applied urea under zero tillage. Soil Tillage Res 15: 383–389Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Malhi SS and Nyborg M (1990b). Efficiency of fall-applied urea for barley: influence of date of application. Fet. Res. 22: 141–145Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Malhi SS and Nyborg M (1991) Recovery of15N-labelled urea: influence of zero tillage, time and method application. Fert Res 28: 263–269Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Malhi SS and Nyborg M (1992) Influence of various factors on the relative effectiveness of fall- versus spring-applied N. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nutrient Management for Sustained Productivity, MS Bajwaet al. (eds.), Vol. 1: 355–365. Department of Soils, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Malhi SS, Mumey G, O'Sullivan PA and Harker KN (1988) An economic comparison of barley production under zero and conventional tillage. Soil Tillage Res 11: 159–166Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Malhi SS, Nyborg M and Monreal C (1982) A comparison of “chutki” or “pocket” placement and incorporation of N fertilizers applied in the fall. In: Abstracts for Commission Papers, 12th Congr Int Soc Soil Sci, New Delhi, India. Vol. 6: 105Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Malhi SS, Nyborg M and Solberg ED (1989) Recovery of15N-labelled urea as influenced by straw addition and method of placement. Can J Soil Sci 69: 543.550Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Malhi SS, Nyborg M and Solberg ED (1992) Minimizing the effect of straw on the availability of fertilizer N to barley. In: Proceedings of Alberta Soil Science Workshop, pp. 136–139. 18–20 February, 1992, Lethbridge, Alberta (Available from Alberta Agriculture, Soils Branch, Edmonton, Canada)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Monreal C (1982) Nest placement of nitrogen fertilizers. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Monreal C, McGill WB and Nyborg M (1986) Spatial heterogeniety of substrates: Effects on hydrolysis, immobilization and nitrification of urea-N. Can J Soil Sci 66: 499–511Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Morrill LG and Dawson JE (1962) Growth rates of nitrifying chemoautotrophs in soil. J Bacteriol 83: 205–206.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Myers JD (1974) Soil processes affecting nitrogenous fertilizers. In: Fertilizers and the Environment, DR Leece (ed.), pp 13–25. Aust Inst Agric Sci, Sydney, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nelson DW and Huber DM (1980) Performance of nitrification inhibitors in the Midwest (east) In: Nitrification Inhibitors- Potentials and Limitations. JJ Meisinger (ed.), pp. 75–88. ASA Spec. Pub. No. 38. Am Soc Agron and Soil Sci Soc Am, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.AGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nommik H (1966) Particle-size effect on the rate of nitrification of N fertilizer materials with special reference to ammonium fixing soils. Plant Soil 24: 181–200Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nommik H (1973a) Assessment of volatilization losses of NH3 from surface-applied urea on forest soil by15N recovery. Plant Soil 38: 589–603Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nommik H (1973b) The effect of pellet size on the ammonia loss from urea applied to forest soil. Plant Soil 39: 309–318Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nommik H (1976) Further observations on ammonia loss from urea applied to forest soil with special reference to the effect of pellet size. Plant Soil 45: 279–282Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nommik H and Vahtras K (1982) Retention and fixation of ammonium and ammonia in soil. In: Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils, pp. 123–171. Agronomy Monograp No. 22. Am Soc Agron, Madison, Wisconsin USAGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nyborg M and Malhi SS (1979) Increasing the efficiency of fall-applied urea fertilizer by placing it in big pellets or in nests. Plant Soil 52: 461–465Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Nyborg M and Malhi SS (1986) Comparison of fall and spring application of nitrogen fertilizers in northern and central Alberta. Can J Soil Sci 66: 225–236Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nyborg M and Malhi SS (1992) Effectiveness of fall-versus spring-applied urea on barley: Pellet size and depth of placement. Fert Res 31: 235–239Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nyborg M, Malhi SS, Timmermans J and Leitch RH (1977) Losses of crop available nitrogen from soils. Agric Forest Bull, Spring, 1977, pp. 33–39. University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nye PH and Tinker PB (1977) Solute Movement in the Soil-Root System. Blackwell, Oxford, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Olson RK and Reiners WA (1983) Nitrification in subalpine balsam fir soils: Test for inhibitory factors. Soil Biol Biochem 15: 413–418Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Olson RV and Swallow CW (1984) Fate of labeled nitrogen fertilizer applied to winter wheat for five years. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48: 583–586Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Pang PC, Cho CM and Hedlin RA (1975a) Effect of pH and nitrifiers population on nitrification of band applied and homogeneously mixed urea-N in soils. Can J Soil Sci 55: 15–21Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pang PC, Cho CM and Hedlin RA (1975b) Effect of N concentration on the transformation of band applied N fertilizer. Can J Soil Sci 55: 23–27Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pang PC, Hedlin RA and Cho CM (1973) Transformation and movement of band applied urea, ammonium sulphate and ammonium hydroxide during incubation in several Manitoba soils. Can J Soil Sci 53: 331–334Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Parsons BC and Koehler FE (1984) Fertilizer use by spring wheat as affected by placement. In: Proceedings of 35th Annual Northwest Fertilizer Conference, pp. 101–105. Pasco, Washington. (Available from University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Partridge JRD and Ridley AO (1974) Effect of nitrogen fertilizers appleid in spring or fall on yield of barley. In: Proc. 18th Ann. Manitoba Soil Science Meeting, pp. 121–127. 11–12 Dec., 1974, Winnipeg (Available from Manitoba Department of Agriculture, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Paul EA and Rennie DA (1977) Crop utilization and fate of fertilizer nitrogen in soil. In: Proceedings of Soil Fertility and Crop Workshop, pp. 177-185. 8–9 Feb., 1977, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Available from University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Passioura JA and Wetselaar R (1972) Consequences of banding nitrogen fertilizers in soil. II. Effects on growth of wheat roots. Plant Soil 36: 461–473Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pearson RW, Jordan HV, Bennet OL, Scarsbrook CE, Adams WE and White AW (1961) Residual effects of fall and spring applied nitrogen fertilizers and crop yields in the Southeastern United States. USDA Tech Bull 1254Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Prosser JI and Cox DJ (1983) Nitrification. In: Experimental Microbial Ecology, First ed., RG Burns and JH Slater (eds.), pp. 178–193. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rachhpal-Singh and Nye PH (1984a) The effect of pH and high urea concentrations on urease activity in soil. J Soil Sci 35: 519–527Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rachhpal-Singh and Nye PH (1984b) Diffusion of urea, ammonium and alkalinity from surface applied urea. J Soil Sci 35: 529–538Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rachhpal-Singh and Nye PH (1986a) A model of NH3 volatilization from applied urea. I. Development of the model. J Soil Sci 37: 9–20Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rachhpal-Singh and Nye PH (1986b) A model of NH3 volatilization form applied urea. II. Experimental test. J Soil Sci 37: 21–29Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rachhpal-Singh and Nye PH (1988) A model of NH3 volatilization from applied urea. IV. Effect of method of urea application. J Soil Sci 39: 9–14Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ranney MW (1978) Nitrification and urease inhibitors. In: Fertilizer Additives and Soil Conditions, MW Ranney (ed.), pp. 168–169. Noyes Data Corp. Park Ridge, New Jersey, USAGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rosenberg RJ, Christensen NW and Jackson TL (1986) Chloride, soil solution osmostic pressure and soil pH effects on nitrification. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50: 941–945Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sabey BR, Frederick LR and Bartholomew WV (1959) The formation of nitrate from ammonium nitrogen in soils. III. Influence of temperature and initial population of nitrifying organisms on the maximum rate and delay period. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 23: 462–465Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sahrawat KL (1980) Control of urea hydrolysis and nitrification in soil by chemicals - prospects and problems. Plant Soil 57: 335–352Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Savant N K and De Datta SK (1980) Movement and distribution of ammonium-N following deep placement of urea in a wetland rice soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44: 559–565Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Savant NK and Stangel PJ (1990) Deep placement of urea supergranules in transplanted rice: principles and practices. Fert Res 25: 1–83Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Savant NK, Craswell ET and Diamond RB (1983) Use of urea supergranules for wetland rice: A review. Fert News 28 (8): 27–35Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Savant NK, De Datta SK and Crasswell ET (1982) Distribution patterns of ammonium N and15N uptake by rice after deep placement of urea supergranules in wetland soil. Soil Sci, Soc Am J 46: 567–573Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Shaviv A (1988) Control of nitrification rate by increasing ammonium concentration. Fert Res 17: 177–188Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Slangen JHG and Kerkhoff P (1984) Nitrification inhibitors in agriculture and horticulture. A literature review. Fert Res 5: 1–76Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Smid AE and Beauchamp EG (1976) Effects of temperature and organic matter on denitrification in soil. Can J Soil Sci 56: 385–391Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Stevens RG and Ruess JO (1975) The Effect of ammonia and ammonia-sulfur solutions on nitrification rates and chemical properties of a calcareous soil. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 39: 787–793Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Stevenson LK and Baldwin CS (1969) Effect of time and method of nitrogen application and source of nitrogen on the yield and nitrogen content of corn. Agron J 61: 381–384Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Stojanovic BJ and Alexander M (1958) Effect of inorganic nitrogen on nitrification. Soil Sci 86: 208–215Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Thomas J and Prasad R (1982) On the nature of mechanisms responsible for the higher efficiency of urea supergranules for rice. Plant Soil 69: 127–130Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tomar JS and Soper RJ (1981) Fate of tagged urea in the field with different methods of N and organic matter placement. Agron J 73: 991–995Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Touchton JT and Boswell FC (1980) Performance of nitrification inhibitors in the Southeast. In: Nitrification Inhibitors -Potentials and Limitations, JJ Meisinger et al. (eds.), pp. 63–74. ASA Spec. Pub. No. 38. Am Soc Agron, Madison, Wisconsin, USAGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tyler KB, Broadbent FE and Hill GN (1959) Low temperature effects of nitrification on four California soils. Soil Sci 87: 123–129Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Vlek PLG, Byrnes BH and Craswell ET (1980) Effect of urea placement on leaching losses of nitrogen from flooded rice soils. Plant Soil 54: 441–449Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Walsh LM (1970) Let's take another look at fall fertilizing. Crops Soils 22(9): 8–9Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Warren KW (1962) Ammonia toxicity and pH. Nature 195: 47–49Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Welch LF, Johnson PF, Pendleton JW and Miller LB (1966) Efficiency of fall- versus spring-applied nitrogen for winter wheat. Agron J 58: 271–274Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wetselaar R (1985) Deep point-placed urea in flooded soil. A mechanistic view. In: Proceedings of Workshop on Urea Deep Placement Technology, pp. 7-14. Sept. Pub. 1984, Bojor, Indonesia. Spec. Pub. 6. IFDC, Muscle Shoals, Alabama, USAGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wetselaar R, Passioura JB and Singh BR (1972) Consequences of banding nitrogen. I. Effect on nitrification. Plant Soil 36: 159–175Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Yadvinder-Singh (1985) Fall application and nitrogen transformations of large urea granules for winter wheat. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Yadvinder-Singh and Beauchamp EG (1987) Nitrification inhibition with large urea granules, dicyandiamide and low soil temperature. Soil Sci 144: 412–419Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Yadvinder-Singh and Beauchamp EG (1988a) Nitrogen transformations near urea with different soil water potentials. Can J Soil Sci 68: 569–576Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Yadvinder-Singh and Beauchamp EG (1988b) Response of winter wheat to fall-applied large urea granules with dicyandiamide. Can J Soil Sci 68: 133–142Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Yadvinder-Singh and Beauchamp EG (1989) Nitrogen transformations near localized urea source: Effect of nitrification inhibitor, nitrifier activity and liming. Fert Res 18: 201–212Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Zhang X (1990) Corn growth with point placed urea. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yadvinder-Singh
    • 1
  • S. S. Malhi
    • 2
  • M. Nyborg
    • 3
  • E. G. Beauchamp
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of SoilsPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhiana, PunjabIndia
  2. 2.Research StationAgriculture CanadaLacombe, AlbertaCanada
  3. 3.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of AlbertaEdmonton, AlbertaCanada
  4. 4.Department of Land Resource ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelph, OntarioCanada

Personalised recommendations