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Vegetatio

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 97–122 | Cite as

Robert H. Whittaker (1920–1980): The man and his work

  • W. E. Westman
  • R. K. Peet
Article

Abstract

R. H. Whittaker enlivened many fields within ecology, systematics and evolution with his insights. Perhaps his most significant contributions to ecology lie in the development of the theories and methods of gradient analysis. Through the verification of the individualistic hypothesis with field data from many regions, and the subsequent development and dissemination of methods for studying species distributions along continua, he helped replace the Clementsian paradigm with a Gleasonian one. His extensive field data on primary production, nutrient cycling patterns and species diversity established new standards for documentation in synecology and helped clarify the basis for site-to-site variation in these variables. Through his broad command of the ecological literature, his writings and his contact with ecologists throughout the world he fostered international understanding of the diversity of approaches to vegetation study.

Keywords

Community ecology Gradient analysis History of ecology Ordination Species diversity Vegetation Whittaker 

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Appendix: Publications of Robert H. Whittaker

  1. 1948 Whittaker, R. H. A. vegetation analysis of the Great Smoky Mountains. Dissertation, University of Illinois, Department of Zoology.Google Scholar
  2. 1951 WhittakerR. H. A criticism of the plant association and climatic climax concepts. Northwest Sci. 26: 17–31.Google Scholar
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  4. 1953 WhittakerR. H. A consideration of climax theory: The climax as a population and pattern. Ecol. Monogr. 23: 41–78.Google Scholar
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  11. 1957a. WhittakerR. H. Recent evolution of ecological concepts in relation to the eastern forests of North America. Am. J. Bot. 44: 197–206. Reprinted in, Fifty Years of Botany: Golden Jubilee Volume of the Botanical Society of America, W. C. Steere, ed., p. 340–358. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958.Google Scholar
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  15. 1958a. WhittakerR. H. & R. W.Fairbanks. A study of plankton copepod communities in the Columbia Basin, southeastern Washington. Ecology 39: 46–65. Reprinted in, Readings in Population and Community Ecology, W. E. Hazen, ed., p. 369-388. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1964.Google Scholar
  16. 1958b. WhittakerR. H. A manual of phytosociology. Review of Bharucha, F. R. and W. C. de Leeuw, 1957. A practical guide to plant sociology for foresters and agriculturalists. Ecology 39: 182.Google Scholar
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  22. 1961a. WhittakerR. H. Estimation of net primary production of forest and shrub communities. Ecology 42: 177–180.Google Scholar
  23. 1961b. WhittakerR. H. Experiments with radiophosphorus tracer in aquarium microcosms. Ecol. Monogr. 31: 157–188.Google Scholar
  24. 1961c. WhittakerR. H. Vegetation history of the Pacific Coast states and the ‘central’ significance of the Klamath Region. Madroño 16: 5–23.Google Scholar
  25. 1961d. WhittakerR. H. New Serials. Ecology 42: 616.Google Scholar
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  33. 1963d. WhittakerR. H., N.Cohen & J. S.Olson. Net production relations of three tree species at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ecology 44: 806–810.Google Scholar
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  36. 1965b. WhittakerR. H. Branch dimensions and estimation of branch production. Ecology 46: 365–370.Google Scholar
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  39. 1966a. WhittakerR. H. Forest dimensions and production in the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecology 47: 103–121.Google Scholar
  40. 1966b. Woodwell, G. M., W. M. Malcolm & R. H. Whittaker. A-boms, bugbombs, and us. NAS-NRC Symposium on ‘The Scientific Aspects of Pest Control’, by the Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.Google Scholar
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  45. 1968a. FrydmanI. & R. H.Whittaker. Forest associations of southeast Lublin Province, Poland. (German summ.) Ecology 49: 896–908.Google Scholar
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  53. 1969b. WhittakerR. H. Een nieuwe indeling van de organismen. Natuur en Techniek 37: 124–132.Google Scholar
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  56. 1969e. WhittakerR. H. & G. M.Woodwell. Structure, production, and diversity of the oakpine forest at Brookhaven, New York. J. Ecol. 57: 155–174.Google Scholar
  57. 1970a. BormannF. H., T. G.Siccama, G. E.Likens & R. H.Whittaker. The Hubbard Brook ecosystem study: Composition and dynamics of the tree stratum. Ecol. Monogr. 40: 373–388.Google Scholar
  58. 1970b. BrownW. L.Jr., T.Eisner & R. H.Whittaker. Allomones and kairomones: Transspecific chemical messengers. Bio-Science 20: 21–22.Google Scholar
  59. 1970c. WhittakerR. H. Communities and Ecosystems. Maemillan, New York, xi + 162 pp. Reprinted in Japanese edition, Tokyo, 1974.Google Scholar
  60. 1970d. WhittakerR. H. Neue Einteilung der Organismenreiche. Umschau 16: 514–515.Google Scholar
  61. 1970c. WhittakerR. H. Taxonomy.In McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 1970, p. 365–369. McGraw-Hill, New-York.Google Scholar
  62. 1970f. WhittakerR. H. The biochemical ecology of higher plants.In Chemical Ecology, E.Sondheimer and J. B.Simeone, eds., p. 43–70. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  63. 1970g. WhittakerR. H. The population structure of vegetation.In Gesellschaftsmorphologie (Strukturforschung), (German summ.), R.Tüxen, ed., p. 39–62. Ber. Symp. Int. Ver. Vegetationskunde, Rinteln, 1966. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
  64. 1970h. WoodwellG. M. & R. H.Whittaker. Ionizing radiation and the structure and functions of forests.In Gesellschaftsmorphologie (Strukturforschung), (German summ.), R.Tüxen (ed.), p. 334–339. Ber. Symp. Int. Ver. Vegetationskunde, Rinteln, 1966. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
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  66. 1971b. WhittakerR. H. & G. M.Woodwell. Evolution of natural communities.In Ecosystem Structure and Function, Proceedings of the 31 st Annual Biology Colloquium, J. A.Wiens, ed., p. 137–156. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.Google Scholar
  67. 1971c. WhittakerR. H. & G. M.Woodwell. Measurement of net primary production of forests. Reprintedin Productivity of Forest Ecosystems (French summ.), Proceedings of the Brussels Symposium, 1969. P.Duvigneaud, ed., p. 159–175. Unesco, Paris.Google Scholar
  68. 1971d. BrussardP. F., S. A.Levin, L. N.Miller & R. H.Whittaker, Redwoods: a population model debunked. Science 175: 435–436.Google Scholar
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  71. 1972a. GauchH. G.Jr. & R. H.Whittaker, Coenocline simulation. Ecology 53: 446–451.Google Scholar
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  73. 1972c. WhittakerR. H. Convergences of ordination and classification. ReprintedIn Basic Problems and Methods in Phytosociology (German summ.), Ber. Symp. Int. Ver. Vegetationskunde, Rinteln, 1970, R.Tüxen, ed., p. 39–55. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
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  76. 1973a. CottamG., F. G.Goff & R. H.Whittaker. Wisconsin comparative ordination.In Ordination and classification of communities, R. H.Whittaker, ed., p. 193–221. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
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  102. 1975j. WhittakerR. H. & P. L.Marks. Methods of assessing terrestrial productivity.In Primary Productivity of the Biosphere, H.Lieth and R. H.Whittaker, eds., p. 55–118. Springer Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  103. 1975k. WhittakerR. H. & W. A.Niering. Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona. V. Biomass, production, and diversity along the elevation gradient. Ecology 56: 771–790.Google Scholar
  104. 1975l. WoodwellG. M., R. H.Whittaker & R. A.Houghton. Nutrient concentrations in plants in the Brookhaven oak-pine forest. Ecology 56: 318–332.Google Scholar
  105. 1976a. GauchH. G.Jr. & R. H.Whittaker. Simulation of community patterns. Vegetatio 33: 13–16.Google Scholar
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  109. 1977b. HanawaltR. B. & R. H.Whittaker. Altitudinal patterns of Na, K, Ca and Mg in soils and plants in the San Jacinto Mountains, California. Soil Sci. 123: 25–36.Google Scholar
  110. 1977c. HanawaltR. B. & R. H.Whittaker. Altitudinal gradients of nutrient supply to plant roots in mountain soils. Soil Sci. 123: 85–96.Google Scholar
  111. 1977d. Noy-MeirI. & R. H.Whittaker. Continuous multivariate methods in community analysis: Some problems and developments. Vegetatic 33: 79–98.Google Scholar
  112. 1977e. WhittakerR. H. Animal effects on plant species diversity.In Vegetation und Fauna, R.Tüxen, ed., p. 409–425. Ber. Symp. Int. Ver. Vegetationskunde, Rinteln, 1976. Cramer, Vaduz.Google Scholar
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  116. 1978a. Noy-MeirI. & R. H.Whittaker. Recent developments in continuous multivariate techniques.In Ordination of Plant Communities, R. H.Whittaker, ed., pp. 337–378. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
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  120. 1978e. WhittakerR. H. & L.Margulis, Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. BioSystems 10: 3–18.Google Scholar
  121. 1978f. WoodwellG. M., R. H.Whittaker, W. A.Reiners, G. E.Likens, C. C.Delwiche & D. B.Botkin. The biota and the world carbon budget. Science 199 (4325): 141–146.Google Scholar
  122. Whittaker, R. H. Review ofTerrestrial Vegetation of California, M. G. Barbour and J. Major, eds. Vegetatio 38: 124–125.Google Scholar
  123. 1979a. NavehZ. & R. H.Whittaker. Measurements and relationships of plant species diversity in Mediterranean shrublands and woodlands.In Ecological Diversity in Theory and Practice, F.Grassle, G. P.Patil, W.Smith & C.Taillie, eds., p. 219–239. International Co-operative Publishing House, Fairland, Maryland.Google Scholar
  124. 1979b. OlsvigL. S., J. F.Cryan & R. H.Whittaker. Vegetational gradients of the pine plains and barrens of Long Island.In Pine Barrens: Ecosystem and Landscape, R. T. T.Eorman, ed., p. 265–282. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  125. 1979c. SaboS. R. & R. H.Whittaker. Bird niches in a subalpine forest: An indirect ordination. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 76: 1338–1342.Google Scholar
  126. 1979d. ShmidaA. & R. H.Whittaker. Convergent evolution of deserts in the old and new world.In Werden und Vergehen von Pflanzengesellsehaften, O.Wilmanns & R.Tüxen, eds., 437–450. Ber. Symp. Int. Ver. Vegetationskunde, Rinteln, 1978. Cramer, Vaduz.Google Scholar
  127. 1979e. WhittakerR. H. Appalachian, balds and other North American heaths.In Heathlands and Related Shrublands of the World, Vol. 9, A. Descriptive Studies, R. L.Specht, ed., p. 427–440. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  128. 1979f. WhittakerR. H.. Vegetational relationships of the pine barrens.In Pine Barrens: Ecosystem and Landscape, R. T. T.Forman, ed., p. 315–331. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  129. 1979g. WhittakerR. H., L. E.Gilbert & J. H.Connell. Analysis of two-phase pattern in a mesquite grassland, Texas. J. Ecol. 67: 935–952.Google Scholar
  130. 1979h. WhittakerR. H. & D.Goodman. Classifying species according to their demographic strategy. I. Population fluctuations and environmental heterogeneity. Am. Nat. 113: 185–200.Google Scholar
  131. 1979i. WhittakerR. H., G. E.Likens, F. H.Bormann, J. S.Eaton & T. G.Siccama. The Hubbard Brook ecosystem study: Forest nutrient cycling and element behavior. Ecology 60: 203–220.Google Scholar
  132. 1979j. WhittakerR. H. & Z.Naveh. Analysis of two-phase patterns.In Contemporary Quantitative Ecology and Related Ecometrics, G. P.Patil and M.Rosenzweig, eds., p. 157–165. International Co-operative Publishing House, Fairland, Maryland.Google Scholar
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  135. 1981a. GauchH. G.Jr., R. H.Whittaker & S. B.Singer. A comparative study of nonmetric ordinations. J. Ecol. 69: 135–152.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. E. Westman
    • 1
  • R. K. Peet
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

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