Electrification of petroleum fuels
The volumetric charge density in the flow of a fuel, within certain limits, is linearly dependent on its specific volumetric resistance.These limits vary depending on the flow rate.
For a fuel with a low conductivity, the current force for the electrification of a turbulent flow in a pipeline of great (more precisely, infinite) length is proportional to the flow rate to the 1.875 power.
The current force for the electrification of the turbulent flow of a fuel is proportional to the diameter of the pipeline to the 0.875 power. With an increase in the length of the pipeline, within known limits, it increases.
The theory of Kosman and Gavis  describes correctly the process of the electrification of petroleum products with their turbulent flow in pipelines; however, it does not take account of various charge carriers in industrial petroleum products, as a result of which it yields too low a value of the current strength for the electrification of the flow of petroleum fuels.
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