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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 17, Issue 2–4, pp 481–536 | Cite as

Geomagnetically trapped radiation

  • Michael Schulz
Article

Abstract

This review covers the major developments in radiation-belt phenomenology of the past four years (1970–1973). This has been a period characterized by consolidation and refinement of ideas and measurements related to geomagnetically trapped particles. Significant progress has been made in understanding ion and electron pitch-angle distributions within the context of radial diffusion and pitch-angle diffusion, respectively. Comparison of alpha-particle and proton distributions has helped to clarify the relative strengths of known radial-diffusion mechanisms. Careful measurements have indicated the directional flux of cosmic-ray-albedo neutrons, which constitute (through beta decay) a major source of high-energy (≳ 20 MeV) inner-belt protons. Inclusion of radial-diffusion and geomagnetic-secular effects has brought the theory of the inner proton belt into reasonable agreement with observation. At very lowL values (L ≲ 1.2) atmospheric collisions have been found to facilitate the radial transport of 40 keV protons and 2 MeV electrons. The plasmapause has been identified as an important boundary for plasma instabilities (wave-particle interactions) that lead to particle precipitation and red-arc excitation. Suggestions have followed for artificially simulating such plasmaspheric effects by magnetospheric injection of cold barium or lithium plasma.

Keywords

Beta Decay Radial Diffusion Particle Precipitation Careful Measurement Trap Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Schulz
    • 1
  1. 1.Space Physics LaboratoryThe Aerospace CorporationEl SegundoUSA

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