Determination and validity of critical velocity as an index of swimming performance in the competitive swimmer

  • Kohji Wakayoshi
  • Komei Ikuta
  • Takayoshi Yoshida
  • Masao Udo
  • Toshio Moritani
  • Yoshiteru Mutoh
  • Mitsumasa Miyashita
Article

Summary

The purpose of this investigation was to test whether the concept of critical power used in previous studies could be applied to the field of competitive swimming as critical swimming velocity (νcrit). The νcrit, defined as the swimming velocity over a very long period of time without exhaustion, was expressed as the slope of a straight line between swimming distance (dlim) at each speed (with six predetermined speeds) and the duration (tlim). Nine trained college swimmers underwent tests in a swimming flume to measure νcrit at those velocities until the onset of fatigue. A regression analysis ofdlim on trim calculated for each swimmer showed linear relationships (r2>0.998,P<0.01), and the slope coefficient signifying νcrit ranged from 1.062 to 1.262 m · s−1 with a mean of 1.166 (SD 0.052) m · s−1. Maximal oxygen consumption (\(\dot VO_{2\max } \)), oxygen consumption (\(\dot VO_2 \)) at anaerobic threshold, and the swimming also velocity at the onset of blood lactate accumulation (νOBLA) were also determined during the incremental swimming test. The νcrit showed significant positive correlations with\(\dot VO_2 \) at anaerobic threshold (r=0.818,P<0.01), νOBLA (r=0.949,P<0.01) and mean velocity of 400m freestyle (r=0.864,P<0.01). These data suggested that νcrit could be adopted as an index of endurance performance in competitive swimmers.

Key words

Competitive swimming Critical swimming velocity Onset of blood lactate accumulation Maximal oxygen consumption 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen WK, Seals DR, Hurley B, Ehsani AA, Hagberg JM (1985) Lactate threshold and distance running performance in young and old endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol 58: 1281–1284Google Scholar
  2. Arabas C, Mayhew L, Hudgins PM, Bond GH (1987) Relationships among work rates, heart rates, and blood lactate levels in female swimmers. J Sports Med 27: 291–295Google Scholar
  3. Åstrand PO, Englesson B (1972) A swimming flume. J Appl Physiol 33: 514Google Scholar
  4. Costill DL, Kovaleski D, Porter D, Kirwan J, Fielding R, King D (1985) Energy expenditure during front crawl swimming: predicting success in middle-distance events. Int J Sports Med 6: 266–270Google Scholar
  5. Davis JA, Vodak P, Wilmore JH, Vodak J, Kurtz P (1976) Anaerobic threshold and maximal aerobic power for three modes of exercise. J Appl Physiol 41: 544–550Google Scholar
  6. de Vries HA, Moritani T, Nagata A, Magnussen K (1982) The relation between critical power and neuromuscular fatigue as estimated from electromyographic data. Ergonomics 25: 783–791Google Scholar
  7. Farrell PA, Wilmore JH, Coyle EF, Billing JE, Costill DL (1979) Plasma lactate accumulation and distance running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 11: 338–344Google Scholar
  8. Heck H, Mader A, Hess G, Mucke S, Muller R, Hollmann W (1985) Justification of the 4-mmol/1 lactate threshold. Int J Sports Med 6: 117–130Google Scholar
  9. Ivy JL, Withers RT, Van Handel PJ, Elger DH, Costill DL (1980) Muscle respiratory capacity and fiber type as determinants of the lactate threshold. J Appl Pbysiol 48: 523–527Google Scholar
  10. Jenkins DG, Quigley BM (1990) Blood lactate in trained cyclists during cycle ergometry at critical power. Eur J Appl Physiol 61: 278–283Google Scholar
  11. Karlsson J, Holmgren A, Linnarson D, Astrom H (1984) OBLA exercise stress testing in health and disease. In: Lollgan L, Mellerowicz H (eds) Progress in ergometry: quality control and test criteria. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 67–91Google Scholar
  12. Kumagai S, Tanaka K, Matsuura Y, Matsuzaka A, Hirakoba K, Asano K (1983) Relationships of anaerobic threshold and the onset of blood lactate accumulation with endurance performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 52: 51–56Google Scholar
  13. Mader A, Madsen O, Hollmann W (1980) Zur Beurteilung der laktaziden Energiebereitstellung für Trainings- und Wettkampfleistungen im Sportschwimmen. Leistungssport 10: 263–268Google Scholar
  14. Madsen O, Lohberg M (1987) The lowdown on lactates. Swimming Techn 24: 21–26Google Scholar
  15. Maglischo EW, Maglischo CW, Bishop RA (1982) Lactate testing for training pace. Swimming Techn 19: 31–37Google Scholar
  16. Monod H, Scherrer J (1965) The work capacity of a synergic muscular group. Ergonomics 8: 329–337Google Scholar
  17. Moritani T, Nagata A, de Vries HA, Muro M (1981) Critical power as a measure of physical work capacity and anaerobic threshold. Ergonomics 24: 339–350Google Scholar
  18. Nagata A, Moritani T, Muro M (1983) Critical power as a measure of muscular fatigue and anaerobic threshold. In: Matsui H, Kobayashi K (eds) Biomechanics VIIIA. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill., pp 312–320Google Scholar
  19. Nomura T (1982) The influence of training and age on\(\dot VO_{2\max } \) during swimming in Japanese elite age group and olympic swimmers. In: Hollander AP, Huijing PA, Groot GD (eds) Biomechanics and medicine in swimming 14. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill., pp 251–257Google Scholar
  20. Olbrecht J, Madsen O, Mader A, Liesen H, Hollmann W (1985) Relationship between swimming velocity and lactic concentration during continuous and intermittent training exercises. Int J Sports Med 6: 74–77Google Scholar
  21. Ribeiro JP, Cadavid E, Baena J, Monsalvete E, Barna A, De Rose EH (1990) Metabolic predictors of middle-distance swimming performance. Br J Sports Med 24: 196–200Google Scholar
  22. Sawka MN, Knowlton RG, Miles DS, Critz JB (1979) Postcompetition blood lactate concentrations in collegiate swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol 41: 93–99Google Scholar
  23. Skinner J (1987) The new, metal-plated assistant coach. Swimming Technique 24: 7–12Google Scholar
  24. Tanaka K, Matsuura Y, Matsuzaka A, Hirakoba K, Kumagai S, Sun-O S, Asano K (1984) A longitudinal assessment of anaerobic threshold and distance running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 16: 278–282Google Scholar
  25. Tanaka K, Nakazawa T, Hazama T, Matsuura Y, Asano K (1985) A prediction equation for indirect assessment of anaerobic threshold in male distance runners. Eur J Appl Physiol 54: 386–390Google Scholar
  26. Wasserman K, Whipp BJ, Koyal SN, Beaver ML (1973) Anaerobic threshold and respiratory gas exchange during exercise. J Appl Physiol 35: 236–243Google Scholar
  27. Yoshida T (1986) Relationship of lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation as determinants of endurance ability in untrained females. Ann Physiol Anthropol 5: 205–209Google Scholar
  28. Yoshida T, Chida M, Ichioka M, Suda Y (1987) Blood lactate parameters related to aerobic capacity and endurance performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 56: 7–11Google Scholar
  29. Yoshida T, Udo M, Iwai K, Muraoka I, Tamaki K, Yamaguchi T, Chida M (1989) Physiological determinants of race walking performance on female race walkers. Br J Sports Med 23: 250–254Google Scholar
  30. Yoshida T, Udo M, Iwai K, Chida M, Ichioka M, Nakadomo F, Yamaguchi T (1990) Significance of the contribution of aerobic and anaerobic components to several distance running performances in females athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 60: 249–253Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kohji Wakayoshi
    • 1
  • Komei Ikuta
    • 1
  • Takayoshi Yoshida
    • 2
  • Masao Udo
    • 2
  • Toshio Moritani
    • 3
  • Yoshiteru Mutoh
    • 4
  • Mitsumasa Miyashita
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratory of Motor Behavioral EducationOsaka UniversityToyonaka, OsakaJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Health and Sport SciencesOsaka UniversityToyonaka, OsakaJapan
  3. 3.Laboratory of Applied Physiology, College of Liberal Arts and SciencesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  4. 4.Laboratory for Exercise Physiology, Biomechanics and Sports SciencesUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations