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European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 267–274 | Cite as

Absorption of oral and intramuscular chlordiazepoxide

  • D. J. Greenblatt
  • R. I. Shader
  • S. M. MacLeod
  • E. M. Sellers
  • K. Franke
  • H. G. Giles
Originals

Summary

The absorption of oral and intramuscular (i. m.) chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride (CDX · HCl) was compared in two pharmacokinetic studies. In Study One, single 50-mg doses of CDX · HCl were administered orally and by i. m. injection to 14 healthy volunteers using a crossover design. Whole-blood concentrations of chlordiazepoxide (CDX) and its first active metabolite, desmethylchlordiazepoxide (DMCDX), were determined in multiple samples drawn after the dose. Mean pharmacokinetic variables for CDX following oral and i. m. administration, respectively, were: highest measured blood concentration, 1.65 vs 0.87 µg/ml (p<0.001); time of highest concentration, 2.3 vs 7.6 h after dosing (p<0.001); apparent absorption half-life, 0.71 vs 3.39 h (p<0.001). Biphasic absorption after i. m. injection, consistent with precipitation at the injection site, was observed in 9 of 14 subjects. Based upon comparison with previous intravenous data, the completeness of absorption was 100% for oral vs 86% for i. m. CDX · HCl (p<0.1). In Study Two, 28 male chronic alcoholics with clinical manifestations of the acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: 50 or 100 mg doses of CDX · HCl, by mouth or by i. m. injection. Concentrations of CDX and DMCDX, determined in plasma samples drawn every 20 min for 5 h following the dose, were significantly higher after oral administration of a given dose than at corresponding points in time after i.m. injection after the same dose. Thus absorption of oral CDX is reasonably rapid and complete, whereas the absorption rate of i. m. CDX is slow.

Key words

Chlordiazepoxide benzodiazepines pharmacokinetics bioavailability intramuscular injection alcohol withdrawal 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. J. Greenblatt
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • R. I. Shader
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • S. M. MacLeod
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • E. M. Sellers
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • K. Franke
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • H. G. Giles
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Clinical Pharmacology UnitMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Psychopharmacology Research LaboratoryMassachusetts Mental Health CenterBostonUSA
  3. 3.Clinical InstituteAddiction Research FoundationTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Departments of Medicine and PharmacologyUniversity of TorontoCanada

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