Advertisement

Planta

, Volume 194, Issue 4, pp 550–556 | Cite as

Activation of non-photochemical quenching in thylakoids and leaves

  • Giles N. Johnson
  • Andrew J. Young
  • Peter Horton
Article

Abstract

The mechanism of rapidly-relaxing non-photochemical quenching in two plant species,Chenopodium album L. andDigitalis purpurea L., that differ considerably in their capacity for such quenching has been investigated (Johnson G.N. et al. 1993, Plant Cell Environ. 16, 673–679). Illumination of leaves of both species in the presence of 2% O2 balance N2 led to the formation of zeaxanthin. When thylakoids were isolated from leaves of each species that had been so treated it was found that in D. purpurea non-photochemical quenching was “activated” relative to the control; a higher level of quenching was found for a given trans-thylakoid pH gradient. No such activation of non-photochemical quenching was observed in C. album. Similar conclusions were drawn when comparing quenching in intact leaves. It is concluded that light activation of quenching is a process that cannot readily be induced in C. album. Measurement of the sensitivity of non-photochemical quenching in leaves of C. album andD. purpurea to dithiothreitol (DTT; a reagent that inhibits formation of zeaxanthin) showed differences between the two species. In both cases, feeding leaves with DTT inhibited the light-induced formation of zeaxanthin. InC. album this was accompanied by complete inhibition of reversible non-photochemical quenching, whereas in D. purpurea this inhibition was only partial. Data are discussed in relation to studies on the mechanism of quenching and the role of zeaxanthin in this process.

Key words

Chlorophyll fluorescence Chenopodium Digitalis Non-photochemical quenching Photosynthesis Xanthophyll cycle Zeaxanthin 

Abbreviations

DTT

dithiothreitol

ΔFm/Fm'

non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence

Fv/Fm

ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence quenching

LHCII

light harvesting complex II

ΔpH

trans-thylakoid pH gradient

PFD

photon flux density

q9AA

quenching of 9-amino acridine fluorescence

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bilger, W., Bjorkman, O. (1990) Role of the xanthophyll cycle in photoprotection elucidated by measurements of light induced absorbance changes, fluorescence and photosynthesis in leaves of Hedera canariensis. Photosynth. Res. 25, 173–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bilger, W, Bjorkman, O., Thayer, S.S. (1989) Light-induced spectral absorbance changes in relation to photosynthesis and the epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle components in cotton leaves. Plant Physiol. 91, 542–551CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Briantais, J.M., Vernotte, C., Picaud, M, Krause, H. (1979) A quantitative study of the slow decline of chlorophylla fluorescence in isolated chloroplasts. Biochim. Biophys. Acta548, 128–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Crofts, J., Horton, P. (1991) Dissipation of excitation energy by photosystem II particles at low pH. Biochim. Biophys. Acta1058, 187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Demmig, B., Winter, K. (1988) Characterisation of three components of non-photochemical fluorescence quenching and their response to photoinhibition. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 15, 163–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Demmig-Adams, B. (1990) Carotenoids and photoprotection: A role for the xanthophyll zeaxanthin. Biochim. Biophys. Acta1020, 1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Demmig-Adams, B., Adams, W.W., Czygan, F.-C., Schreiber, U., Lange, O.L. (1990a) Differences in the capacity for radiationless energy dissipation in the photochemical apparatus of green and blue-green algal lichens associated with differences in carotenoid composition. Planta180, 582–589CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Demmig-Adams, B., Adams, W.W., Heber, U., Neimanis, S., Kruger, A., Czygan, F.-C., Bilger, W., Bjorkman, O. (1990b) Inhibition of zeaxanthin formation and of rapid radiationless energy dissipation by dithiothreitol in spinach leaves and chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 92, 293–301CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. (1988) Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Horton, P., Bowyer, J.R. (1990) Chlorophyll fluorescence transients. In: Methods in plant biochemistry, vol. 4, 259–296, Bowyer, J.R., Harwood, J., eds. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Horton, P., Hague, A. (1988) Studies on the induction of chlorophyll fluorescence in isolated barley protoplasts: IV. Resolution of non-photochemical quenching. Biochim. Biophys. Act. 932, 107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Horton P., Ruban, A.V. (1992) Regulation of photosystem II. Photosynth. Res. 34, 375–385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Horton, P., Ruban, A.V., Rees, D., Pascal, A.A., Noctor, G., Young, A J. (1991) Control of the light-harvesting function of chloroplast membranes by aggregation of the LHCII chlorophyll-protein complex. FEBS Lett. 292, 1–4CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson, G.N. (1992) Dissipation of excitation energy in ecologically contrasted plant species. PhD thesis, University of SheffieldGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson, G.N., Young, A.J., Scholes, J.D., Horton, P. (1993) The dissipation of excess excitation energy in British plant species. Plant Cell Environ. 16, 673–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krause G.H., Behrend, U. (1986) ΔpH-dependent chlorophyll fluorescence quenching indicating a mechanism of protection against photoinhibition of chloroplasts. FEBS Lett. 200, 298–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Krause, G.H., Weis, E. (1991) Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: the basics. Annu. Rev. Plant Phys. Plant Mol. Biol. 42, 313–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Krieger, A., Weis, E. (1992) Energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll-a fluorescence: The involvement of proton-calcium exchange at photosystem 2. Photosynthetica27, 89–98Google Scholar
  19. Neubauer, C. (1993) Multiple effects of dithiothreitol on non-photochemical fluorescence quenching in intact chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 103, 575–583CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Noctor, G., Horton, P. (1990) Uncoupler titration of energy dependent chlorophyll fluorescence quenching and photosystem II photochemical yield in intact pea chloroplasts. Biochim. Biophys. Acta1016, 228–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Noctor, G., Rees, D., Young, A.J., Horton, P. (1991) The relationship between zeaxanthin, energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and trans-thylakoid pH gradient in isolated chloroplasts. Biochim. Biophys. Acta1057, 320–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pearcy, R.W. (1990) Sunflecks and photosynthesis in plant canopies. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 41, 421–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Quick, W.P., Stitt, M. (1989) An examination of the factors contributing to non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in barley leaves. Biochim. Biophys. Acta977, 287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rees, D., Noctor, G., Horton, P. (1990a) The effect of high energy-state excitation quenching on maximum and dark level fluorescence yield. Photosynth. Res. 25, 199–211CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Rees, D., Noctor, G., Young, A.J., Britton, G., Horton, P. (1990b) Enhancement of the ΔpH dependent dissipation of excitation energy in a spinach chloroplasts by light activation: correlation with the synthesis of zeaxanthin. FEBS Lett. 256, 85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rees, D., Noctor, G., Ruban, A.V., Crofts, J., Young, A.J., Horton, P. (1992) pH-dependent chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in spinach thylakoids from light-treated and dark-adapted leaves. Photosynth. Res. 31, 11–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ruban, A.V., Rees, D., Pascal, A.A., Horton, P. (1992) Mechanism of ΔpH-dependent quenching of the Fo level of chlorophyll fluorescence in spinach leaves. Biochim. Biophys. Acta1102, 39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ruban, A.V., Young, A.J., Horton, P. (1993) Induction of non-photochemical energy dissipation and absorbance changes in leaves; evidence for changes in the state of the light harvesting system of photosystem II in vivo. Plant Physiol. 102, 741–750CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Schreiber, U., Neubauer, C. (1990) O2-dependent electron flow membrane energisation and the mechanism of non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Photosynth. Res. 25, 279–293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. van Kooten, O., Snel, J.F.H. (1990) The use of chlorophyll fluorescence nomenclature in plant stress physiology. Photosynth. Res. 25, 147–150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Walters, R.G., Horton, P. (1991) Resolution of components of non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in barley leaves. Photosynth. Res. 27, 121–133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Walters, R.G., Horton, P. (1993) Theroetical assesment of alternative mechanisms for non-photochemical chlorophyll quenching in barley leaves. Photosynth. Res. 36, 741–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yamamoto, H.Y., Kamite, L. (1972) The effects of dithiothreitol on violaxanthin de-epoxidation and absorbance changes in the 500 nm region. Biochim. Biophys. Acta267, 538–543CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giles N. Johnson
    • 1
  • Andrew J. Young
    • 2
  • Peter Horton
    • 1
  1. 1.Robert Hill Institute, Department of Molecular Biology and BiotechnologyUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  2. 2.School of Biological and Earth Sciences, John Moores University LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations