Formal Methods in System Design

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 273–282

Mod-2-OBDDs—A data structure that generalizes EXOR-sum-of-products and ordered binary decision diagrams

  • Jordan Gergov
  • Christoph Meinel


We present a data structure for Boolean manipulation-the Mod-2-OBDDs-that considerably extends ESOPs (EXOR-sum-of-products) as well as OBDDs (ordered binary decision diagrams). There are Boolean functions of practical interest which have exponential size optimal ESOPs (even multilevel EXOR-expressions) and/or OBDDs that can be represented by (low degree) polynomial size Mod-2-OBDDs.

We show that Boolean manipulation tasks such as apply operation, quantification, composition can be performed with Mod-2-OBDDs at least as efficient as with OBDDs. Indeed, since the size of a minimal Mod-2-OBDD-representation of a Boolean function is, in general, smaller (sometimes even exponentially smaller) than the size of an optimal OBDD-representation, the increase in efficiency is considerable. Moreover, EXOR-operations as well as complementations can be performed in constant timeO (1).

However, the price of constant time EXOR-apply operations is the canonicity of the Mod-2-OBDD-representation. In order to allow in spite of this fact efficient analysis of Mod-2-OBDDs we present a fast probabilistic equivalence test with one-sided error probability for Mod-2-OBDDs (and, hence, for ESOPs) which performs only linear many arithmetic operations.


data structures for Boolean functions BDDs verification EXOR expressions 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jordan Gergov
    • 1
  • Christoph Meinel
    • 2
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für InformatikSaarbrückenGermany
  2. 2.Fachbereich IV-InformatikUniversität TrierTrierGermany

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