Advertisement

Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 119–134 | Cite as

Alley cropping and mulching withErythrina poeppigiana (Walp.) O. F. Cook andGliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp.: effects on maize/weed competition

  • M. Rippin
  • J. P. Haggar
  • D. Kass
  • U. Köpke
Article

Abstract

The potential of allye cropping systems to sustain a high productivity with low external inputs and the reduction of maize/weed competition through weed suppression in different alley cropping and sole-cropped mulched systems was studied in Costa Rica at CATIE. Data were recorded eight years after establishment of the experiment. Plant residues ofErythrina poeppigiana trees (10 t/ha dry matter) planted at 6 by 3 m reduced weed biomass by 52%, whileGliricidia sepium trees (12 t/ha dry matter) planted at 6 by 0.5 m reduced weed biomass by 28%, in comparison to controls.Erythrina had a considerable impact on grass weeds, whileGliricidia reduced the incidence of some dicot weeds. Weed competition significantly reduced maize yield in all systems. Nevertheless weed suppression contributed to the higher maize grain yield underErythrina andGliricidia alley cropping of 3.8 t per hectare as opposed to the unmulched control yield of 2.0 t per hectare.

Key words

alley cropping Erythrina poeppigiana Gliricidia sepium weeds maize mulch weed competition weed reduction potential 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adejuwon JO and Adesina FA (1990) Organic matter and nutrient status of soils under cultivated fallows: an example ofGliricidia sepium fallows from South Western Nigeria. Agroforestry Systems 10: 23–32Google Scholar
  2. Adesina FA (1988)Developing suitable agroforestry systems in the tropics: an example of local agroforestry techniques from South Western Nigeria. Discussion Papers in Geography No 37, University of Salford, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  3. Akobundu IO (1980)Live mulch: a new approach to weed control and crop production in the tropics. British Crop Protection Conference — Weeds, 1980, Research Reports Vol 2, pp 377–382.Google Scholar
  4. Bhandari DC and Sen DN (1979) Agroecosystem analysis of the Indian arid zone I.Indigo fera cordiflora as a weed. Agro-Ecosystems 5: 257Google Scholar
  5. Budelman A (1988) The performance of the leaf mulches ofLeucaena leucocephala, Fleminga macrophylla andGliricidia sepium in weed control. Agroforestry Systems 6: 137–145Google Scholar
  6. Budelman A (1990a) Woddy legumes as live support systems in yam cultivations. I. The tree crop interface. Agroforestry Systems 10: 47–59Google Scholar
  7. Budelman A (1990b) Woody legumes as live support systems in yam cultivations. II. The yam-Gliricidia sepium association. Agroforestry Systems 10: 61–69Google Scholar
  8. Derpsch R, Roth CH, Sidiras N and Köpke U (1988) Erosionsbekämpfung in Paraná, Brasilien: Mulchsysteme, Direktsaat und konservierende Bodenbearbeitung. Eschborn, Germany, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, 270 ppGoogle Scholar
  9. Eßl A(1987) Statistische Methoden in der Tierproduktion. Wien, Österreichischer Agrar Verlag, 316 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Getahun A (1981) IITA/IDRC agroforestry trials. Progress report, August 1981Google Scholar
  11. Haggar JP and Beer JW (1993) Effect on maize growth of the interaction between increased nitrogen availability and competition with trees in alley cropping. Agroforestry Systems 21: 239–249Google Scholar
  12. Haggar JP, Tanner EVJ, Beer JW and Kass DCL (1993) Nitrogen dynamics of tropical agroforestry and annual cropping systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25(10): 1363–1378Google Scholar
  13. Holdrige LR (1977) Ecología basada en las zonas de vida. San José, Costa Rica IICA, 216 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Holm S (1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 6: 65–70Google Scholar
  15. IITA (1983) Agroforestry. In: IITA Annual Report for 1982 pp 153–159. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  16. IITA (1986) Performance of woody species in alley cropping with food crops. In: Annual Report 1985, pp 29–30. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  17. Inostrosa SI and Fournier O (1982) Efecto alelopático deGliricidia sepium. Revista de Biología Tropical (C.R.) 30 (1): 35–39Google Scholar
  18. Jama B, Getahun A and Ngugi DN (1991) Shading effects of alley croppedLeucaena leucocephala on weed biomass and maize yield at Mtwapa, Coast Province, Kenya. Agroforestry Systems 13: 1–11Google Scholar
  19. Kang BT, Sipkens L, Wilson GF and Nangju D (1981) Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit) prunings as nitrogen source for maize (Zea mays L.). Fertilizer Research (2): 279–287Google Scholar
  20. Kass DL (1987) Alley cropping of annual food crops with woody legumes in Costa Rica. In: Beer JW, Fassbender HW and Heuveldop J, eds, Advances in Agroforestry Research, pp 197–214. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa RicaGoogle Scholar
  21. Kass DL, Barrantes A, Bermudez W, Campos W, Jimenez J and Sanchez J (1989) Resultados de seis años de investigación de cultivos en callejones (Alley cropping) en ‘La Montaña’, Turrialba, Costa Rica. El Chasqui 19: 5–24Google Scholar
  22. Klingman DL (1971) Measuring weed density in crops. In: Chiarappa L, ed, Crop Loss Assessment Methods, pp 3.1.5/1–3.1.5/6. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  23. Kreeb KH (1983) Vegetationskunde. Methoden und Vegetationsformen unter Berücksichtigung ökosystemischer Aspekte. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart, 331 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Lal R (1978) Influence of within- and between-row mulching on soil temperature, soil moisture, root development and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in a tropical soil. Field Crop Research 1: 127–139Google Scholar
  25. Michieka RW (1981) Weed research survey in Kenya. A report for the National Council for Science and Technology, Kenya, 8 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Nye PH and Greenland DJ (1960) The soil under shifting cultivation. Tech Comm No 51. Commonwealth Bureau of Soils, Harpenden, UK, 156 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Obando Guerrero L (1987) Potential alelopatico deGliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud sobre los cultivos de maíz y frijol y las malezas predominantes. Tesis Mg. Sci. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa RicaGoogle Scholar
  28. Prinz D (1986) Ökologisch angepaßte Produktionssysteme. Erhaltung und Verbesserung der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität in den Tropen und Subtropen. In: Rehm S, ed, Handbuch der Landwirtschaft und Ernährung in den Entwicklungsländern. Band 3, Grundlagen des Pflanzenbaus in den Tropen und Subtropen, pp 115–186. Eugen Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  29. Raintree JB and Warner K (1986) Agroforestry pathways for the intensification of shifting cultivation. Agroforestry Systems 4: 39–54Google Scholar
  30. Rehm SH, ed (1986) Handbuch der Landwirtschaft und Ernährung in den Entwicklungsländern. Band 3: Pflanzenbau in den Tropen und Subtropen. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart, 480 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. SAS (1987) PC DOS SAS/STAT Release 6.03, Cary, USA, SAS Institute Inc, 558 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Schauder A (1988) Mulch von Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (lam.) de Wit) im Alley cropping System: Auswirkungen auf Mikroklima, Boden und Ertrag von Mais (Zea mays L.) auf einer Terra fusca — Braunerde in Haiti. Diplomarbeit, Germany, Universität Bonn, 95 ppGoogle Scholar
  33. STSC (1987) STATGRAPHICS, Vers. 2.6 User's Guide. Statistical Graphics Coorporation, USAGoogle Scholar
  34. Tilman D (1988) Plant Strategies and the Dynamics and Structure of Plant Communities. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 360 ppGoogle Scholar
  35. Utz HF (1988) PLABSTAT — Ein Computerprogramm zur statistischen Analyse von pflanzenzüchterischen Experimenten. Institut für Pflanzenzüchtung, Saatgutforschung und Populationsgenetik der Universität Hohenheim, 24 ppGoogle Scholar
  36. Walter H (1983) Weed management in the Philippines: report of seminars. Plits 1983/1 (1). Universität Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany, 184 ppGoogle Scholar
  37. Yamoah CF and Burleigh JR (1990) Alley croppingSesbania sesban (L) Merill with food crops in the highland region of Rwanda. Agroforestry Systems 10: 169–181Google Scholar
  38. Yamoah CF, Agboola AA and Mulongoy K (1986a) Decomposition, nitrogen release and weed control by prunings of selected alley cropping shrubs. Agroforestry Systems 4: 239–246Google Scholar
  39. Yamoah CF, Agboola AA and Wilson GF (1986b) Nutrient contribution and maize performance in alley cropping systems. Agroforestry Systems 4: 247–254Google Scholar
  40. Yamoah CF, Agboola AA, Wilson GF and Mulongoy K (1986c) Soil properties as affected by the use of leguminous shrubs for alley cropping with maize. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 18(2): 167–177Google Scholar
  41. Zadoks JC, Chang TT and Konzak CF (1974) A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals (maize, sorghum, foragegrass and dicotyledonous crops). Weed Res 14(6): 415–421Google Scholar
  42. Zimdahl RL (1980) Weed-Crop Competition: A Review. International Plant Protection Center, Corvallis, Oregon, USA, 196 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Rippin
    • 1
  • J. P. Haggar
    • 2
  • D. Kass
    • 3
  • U. Köpke
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Organic AgricultureUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.CATIE-GTZ Agroforestry ProjectCentro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE)TurrialbaCosta Rica
  3. 3.Nitrogen Fixing Tree ProjectCentro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE)TurrialbaCosta Rica

Personalised recommendations