Evaluation of the acceptance of glass in bone

  • Ö. H. Andersson
  • Guizhi Liu
  • K. Kangasniemi
  • J. Juhanoja


Six glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-Al2O3-B2O3-system were implanted in rabbit tibia. The bone-implant interfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in a push-out test. In SEM it seems possible to distinguish between physical contact and chemical bonding between glass and bone. The measured push-out strength is about 0.5 MPa if no bone contact exists. If physical contact exists the push-out strength is 2–3 MPa. The push-out strength of titanium falls within these limits. Glasses, which on basis of the SEM study are concluded to chemically bond to bone, show push-out strengths of 16–23 MPa. Two non-bonding glasses are compared. One possesses only a silica-rich surface, whereas the other possesses a calcium phosphate-rich surface. Both develop a close contact with bone, but neither bonds chemically. There is no significant difference in their push-out strengths, which are comparable to that of titanium. Even if a calcium phosphate-rich layer forms at the glass surface, bonding may be reduced if Al2O3 is included in the glass composition. Further, a phosphate-free bioactive glass is compared with two phosphate-containing bioactive glasses. The phosphate-free glass bonds by incorporating phosphate from the body fluid into its surface. Push-out data indicate that this glass is not as firmly attached to bone as the phosphate-containing ones. The calcium phosphate layer formed is non-uniform, which might explain the lower bonding strength.


Al2O3 Calcium Phosphate Physical Contact Bioactive Glass Glass Composition 
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Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ö. H. Andersson
    • 1
  • Guizhi Liu
    • 1
  • K. Kangasniemi
    • 2
  • J. Juhanoja
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringAbo Akademi UniversityÅbo/TurkuFinland
  2. 2.Institute of DentistryUniversity of TurkuÅbo/TurkuFinland
  3. 3.Laboratory of Materials ScienceUniversity of TurkuÅbo/TurkuFinland

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