Cardiorespiratory adaptation with short term training in older men

  • Devin Govindasamy
  • Donald H. Paterson
  • Marc J. Poulin
  • David A. Cunningham
Article

Summary

The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of training-induced cardiorespiratory adaptations in older men [mean (SD), 66.5 (1.2) years]. The eight subjects trained an average of 4.3 (0.3) times each week. The walk/jog training was in two phases with 4 weeks (phase 1) at a speed to elicit 70% of pre-training maximal oxygen consumption (\(\dot VO_{2\max } \)), and 5 weeks (phase 2) at 80%. Maximal exercise treadmill tests and a standardized submaximal protocol were performed prior to training, at weekly intervals during the training programme, and after training.\(\dot VO_{2\max } \) (ml·kg−1·min−1) increased significantly over both phases: 6.6% after the first 4 weeks, and an additional 5.2% after the final 5 weeks. The weekly changes in\(\dot VO_{2\max } \) over phase 1 were well fitted by an exponential association curve (r=0.75). The half-time for the rate of adaptation was 13.8 days, or 8.3 training sessions. Over phase 2, the change in\(\dot VO_{2\max } \) did not plateau and a time course could not be determined. Submaximal exercise heart rate (fc) was reduced a significant 10 beats · min−1 after the first 4 weeks, and a further 6 beats · min−1 over the final 5 weeks. Thefc reductions showed half-times of 9.1 days (phase 1) and 9.8 days (phase 2) (or 5-6 training sessions). The anaerobic ventilation threshold was increased 13.9% over the 9 weeks of training and the respiratory exchange ratio during constant load heavy exercise was significantly reduced; however, these changes could not be described by an exponential time course. Thus, short-term exercise training of older men resulted in significant and rapid cardiorespiratory improvements.

Key words

Ageing Training Maximal oxygen uptake Submaximal exercise heart rate Ventilation threshold 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Badenhop DT, Cleary PA, Schaal SF, Fox EL, Bartels RL (1983) Physiological adjustments to higher or lower intensity exercise in elders. Med Sci Sports Exerc 15:496–502Google Scholar
  2. Barry AJ, Daly WJ, Pruett EDR, Steinmetz JR, Page HF, Birkhead NC, Rodahl K (1966) The effect of physical conditioning of older individuals. I. Work capacity, circulatory-respiratory function and electrocardiogram. J Gerontol 182–191Google Scholar
  3. Beaver WL, Lamarra N, Wasserman K (1981) Breath-by-breath measurement of true alveolar gas exchange. J Appl Physiol 51:1662–1675Google Scholar
  4. Blumenthal JA, Emery CF, Madden DJ, George LK, Coleman RE, Riddle MW, McKee DC, Reasoner J, Williams RS (1989) Cardiovascular and behavioural effects of aerobic exercise training in healthy older men and women. J Gerontol 44: M147–157Google Scholar
  5. Cunningham DA, Rechnitzer PA (1974) Exercise prescription and the postcoronary patient. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 55:296–300Google Scholar
  6. Cunningham DA, Nancekievill AE, Paterson DH, Donner AP, Rechnitzer PA (1985) Ventilation threshold and aging. J Gerontol 40:703–707Google Scholar
  7. Cunningham DA, Rechnitzer PA, Howard JH, Donner AP (1987) Exercise training of men at retirement: a clinical trial. J Gerontol 42:17–23Google Scholar
  8. Davis JA, Frank MH, Whipp BJ, Wasserman K (1979) Anaerobic threshold alterations caused by endurance training in middleaged men. J Appl Physiol 46:1039–1016Google Scholar
  9. de Vries HA (1971) Exercise intensity threshold for improvement of cardiovascular-respiratory function in older men. Geriatrics 26:94–101Google Scholar
  10. Hickson RC, Hagberg JM, Ehsani AA, Holloszy JO (1981) Time course of the adaptive responses of aerobic power and heart rate to training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 13:17–20Google Scholar
  11. Paterson DH, Whipp BA (1991) Asymmetries of oxygen uptake transients at the on- and off-set of heavy exercise in humans. J Physiol (Lond) 443:575–586Google Scholar
  12. Paterson DH, Cunningham DA, Donner D (1981) The effect of different treadmill speeds on the variability of\(\dot VO_{2\max } \) in children. Eur J Appl Physiol 47:113–122Google Scholar
  13. Ready AE, Quinney HA (1982) Alterations in anaerobic threshold as the result of endurance training and detraining. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14:292–296Google Scholar
  14. Rogers MA, Yamamoto C, Hagberg JM, Martin WH, Ehsani AA, Holloszy JO (1988) Effect of 6d of exercise training on responses to maximal and submaximal exercise in middle-aged men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 20:260–264Google Scholar
  15. Seals DR, Hagberg JM, Hurley BF, Ehsani AA, Holloszy JO (1984) Endurance training in older men and women. I. Cardiovascular responses to exercise. J Appl Physiol 57:1024–1029Google Scholar
  16. Smith D, O'Donnell T (1984) The time course during 36 weeks' endurance training of changes in\(\dot VO_{2\max } \) and anaerobic threshold as determined with a new computerized method. Clin Sci 67:229–236Google Scholar
  17. Stamford BA (1973) Physiological effects on training upon institutionalized geriatric men. J Gerontol 28:441–446Google Scholar
  18. Suominen HE, Hiekkinen E, Liesen H, Michel D, Hollmann W (1977) Effects of 8 weeks endurance training on skeletal muscle metabolism in 56-70-year-old sedentary men. Eur J Appl Physiol 37: 173–180Google Scholar
  19. Thomas SG, Cunningham DA, Thompson J, Rechnitzer PA (1985) Exercise training and “ventilation threshold” in elderly. J Appl Physiol 59:1472–1476Google Scholar
  20. Tzankoff SP, Robinson S, Pyke FS, Brawn CA (1972) Physiological adjustments to work in older men as affected by physical training. J Appl Physiol 33:346–350Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Devin Govindasamy
    • 1
  • Donald H. Paterson
    • 1
  • Marc J. Poulin
    • 1
  • David A. Cunningham
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Kinesiology, Centre for Activity and Ageing affiliated with the Faculty of Kinesiology of the University of Western Ontario and the Lawson Research Institute of the St. Joseph's Health CentreThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, Centre for Activity and Ageing affiliated with the Faculty of Kinesiology of the University of Western Ontario and the Lawson Research Institute of the St. Joseph's Health CentreThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations