Scanning tunnelling microscopy and tunnelling spectroscopy of titanium before and afterin vitro immersion

  • P. D. Bianco
  • P. Ducheyne
  • D. Bonnell


In an effort to understand thein vivo interactions of titanium and its alloys with a biological environment, surface science methods have been used on specimens retrieved fromin vitro andin vivo experiments. A relatively new technique that has the potential to further our knowledge of the oxide-solution interface is scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (TS). This work documents the use of STM/TS in the study of titanium thin films before and after immersion in anin vitro solution. Titanium thin films were fabricated using a procedure which produced an oxide that had minimal contaminants. Half of the thin films were immersed in an electrolyte. STM/TS was performed immediately after the immersion period. Constant current images were obtained. Current-voltage characteristics were recorded at regions of interest. The topography of the nonimmersed films revealed that the surface was qualitatively the same as other sputter deposited metal films. I–V curves showed little spatial variation. The topography of the immersed film showed little change from the nonimmersed ones. However, significant spatial variation of the local electronic structure was noted. This indicates that titanium surface-fluid interactions do not occur uniformly on the film.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    T. ALBREKTSSON, P. I. BRANEMARK, H.-A. HANSSON, B. KASEMO, K. LARSSON, I. LUNDSTRÖM, D. MCQUEEN and R. S. SKALAK,Ann. Biomed. Engng 11 (1983) 1.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. F. WILLIAMS, in “Biocompatibility of clinical implant materials”, edited by D. F. Williams (CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, 1981) p. 9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. KASEMO and J. LAUSMAA, in “Surface characterization of biomaterials”, edited by B. D. Ratner (Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, 1988) p. 1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.-E. SUNDGREN, P. BODÖ and I. LUNDSTRÖM,J. Coll. Inter. Sci. 110 (1986) 9.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.-A. MAESULI, P. R. BLOCH, V. GERET and S. G. STEINEMANN, in “Biological and biomechanical performance of biomaterials”, edited by P. Christel, A. Meunier and A. J. C. Lee (Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, 1986) p. 57.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. E. HEALY and P. DUCHEYNE,Biomaterials, submitted.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. E. HEALY and P. DUCHEYNE,J. Coll. Inter. Sci., submitted.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. K. HANSMA and J. TERSOFF,J. Appl. Phys. 61 (1987) R1.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. J. HAMERS,Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 40 (1989) 531.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W. KERN and D. A. PUOTINEN,RCA Rev. 31 (1970) 187.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Standard recommended practice for surface preparation and marking of metallic surgical implants,ASTM Standard F86, ASTM, Philadelphia (1976).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. M. BARÓ, N. GARCIA, R. MIRANDA, L. VÁZQUEZ, C. APARICIO, J. OLIVÉ and J. LAUSMAA,Biomaterials 7 (1986) 463.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. ASK, U. ROLANDER, J. LAUSMAA and B. KASEMO,J. Mater. Res. 5 (1990) 1662.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. J. SOLAR, S. R. POLLACK and E. KOROSTOFF,J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 13 (1979) 217.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. S. ROHRER, V. E. HENRICH and D. A. BONNELL,Science 250 (1990) 1239.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    F.-R. F. FAN and A. J. BARD,Phys. Chem. 94 (1990) 3761.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. E. GILBERT and J. H. KENNEDY,Surf. Sci. Lett. 225 (1990) L1.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. SAKAMAKI, S. MATSUNAGA, K. ITOH, A. FUJISHIMA and Y. GOHSHI,ibid. 219 (1989) L531.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. D. BIANCO, P. DUCHEYNE, D. BONNELL and G. ROHRER, in Transactions of the Society for Biomaterials, Charleston, May 1990, p. 64.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. JOBIN, R. EMCH, F. ZENHAUSERN and P. DESCOUTS, in Fifth International Conference on Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy/Spectroscopy, Baltimore, July 1990, p. 241.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. D. Bianco
    • 1
  • P. Ducheyne
    • 1
  • D. Bonnell
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BioengineeringUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations