Warm brain and eye temperatures in sharks
- 324 Downloads
Temperatures in the brain and eyes of mako and porbeagle sharks (Lamnidae) are 5°C warmer than the water while the brain and eye temperatures in six other species of pelagic sharks are within 0.1°C of water temperature.
An orbital rete mirabile is present in the porbeagle and mako sharks but absent in the cranial vasculature of eleven other species of pelagic sharks.
The orbital rete in the head of the porbeagle and mako sharks acts as a heat exchanger which conserves metabolic heat and raises the local tissue temperatures.
This brain and eye warming system should buffer the central nervous system from the effects of rapid temperature change. Warming of the retina may improve the visual sensitivity of these active predators.
KeywordsCentral Nervous System Retina Water Temperature Temperature Change Human Physiology
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Aasen O (1961) Some observations on the biology of the porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus Bonnaterre). Int Counsil Explor seas 109:1–7Google Scholar
- Baker MA (1972) Influence of the carotid rete on brain temperature in cats exposed to hot environments. J Physiol 220:711–728Google Scholar
- Baker MA (1982) Brain cooling in endotherms in heat and exercise. Annu Rev Physiol 44:85–96Google Scholar
- Baylor DA, Hodgkin AL (1973) Detection and resolution of visual stimuli by turtle photoreceptors. J Physiol 234:163–198Google Scholar
- Burne RH (1923) Some peculiarities of the blood vascular system of the porbeagle shark (Lamna cornubica). Philos Trans R Soc London 212B:209–257Google Scholar
- Carey FG, Casey JJ, Pratt HL, Urquhart D, McCosker JE (1985) Temperature, heat production and heat exchange in Lamnid sharks Bull Southern Calif Acad ScienceGoogle Scholar
- Carey FG (1982) A brain heater in the swordfish. Science 216:1327–1329Google Scholar
- Carey FG, Teal JM, Kanwisher JW (1981) The visceral temperatures of mackerel sharks. Physiol Zool 54:334–344Google Scholar
- Carey FG, Teal JM, Kanwisher JW, Lawson K, Beckett J (1971) Warm bodied fish. Am Zool 11:137–145Google Scholar
- Carey FG, Teal JM (1969) Mako and porbeagle: warm bodied sharks. Comp Biochem Physiol 28:199–204Google Scholar
- Carrazi D (1905) Sul sistema arterioso di selache mazima e di altri squalidi. Anat Anz 26:83–95Google Scholar
- Crawshaw LI (1976) Effect of rapid temperature change on mean body temperature and gill ventilation in carp. Am J Physiol 231:837–841Google Scholar
- Daniel PM, Dawes JK, Prichard MM (1953) Studies of the carotid rete and its associated arteries. Philos Trans R Soc London B 237:173–208Google Scholar
- Friedlander MJ, Kotchabhakdi N, Prosser CL (1976) Effects of cold and heat on behavior and cerebellar functions in goldfish. J Comp Physiol 112:19–45Google Scholar
- Frost PH, Siegfried WR, Greenwood PJ (1975) Arterio-venous heat exchange systems in the Jackass penguin,Spheniscus demersus. J Zool London 175:231–241Google Scholar
- Garrick JF (1967) Revision of sharks of genusIsurus with description of a new species (Galeoidea, Lamnidae). Proc US Nat Mus 118:663–690Google Scholar
- Konishi J, Hickman CP (1964) Temperature acclimation in the central nervous system of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii). Comp Biochem Physiol 13:433–442Google Scholar
- Linthicum DS, Carey FG (1972) Regulation of brain and eye temperatures by the bluefin tuna. Comp Biochem Physiol 43A:425–433Google Scholar
- Müller J (1841) Vergleichende Anatomie der Myxinoiden. Abh Königl Akad Wissensch Berlin 35–303Google Scholar
- Northcutt RG (1977) The elasmobranch central nervous system and organization Am Zool 17:411–429Google Scholar
- O'Donoghue (1914) The blood vascular system of the spiny dogfish,Squalus acanthias, Linne, andSqualus sucklii Gill. Trans R Soc Edinburg 55/3 33:823–890Google Scholar
- Prosser CL, Nelson CO (1981) The role of nervous systems in temperature adaptation of poikilotherms. Annu Rev Physiol 43:281–300Google Scholar
- Saemundsson B (1949) Marine pisces. Zool Iceland 4:1–150Google Scholar
- Scholander PF (1958) Counter current exchange: A principle in biology. Hvalradets Skrifter 44:1–23Google Scholar
- Scholander PF, Krog J (1957) Countercurrent heat exchange and vascular bundles in sloths. J Appl Physiol 10:405–411Google Scholar
- Svetlov MF (1977) The porbeagle,Lamna nasus, in Antarctic waters. J Ichthyol 18:850–851Google Scholar