Seasonal acclimatization to temperature in cardueline finches
- 144 Downloads
Seasonal variation in metabolism and insulation was measured throughout the year in American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and during winter in pine siskins (S. pinus).
Basal levels of metabolism of goldfinches in summer, 4.24 ml O2 (g·h)−1, and winter, 4.65 ml O2 (g·h)−1, do not differ significantly, but the intercept of the regression line defining the relation of oxygen consumption to ambient temperature below thermoneutrality is significantly higher for summer birds (Figs. 1, 2).
Basal metabolism of pine siskins, 4.52 ml O2 (g·h)−1, does not differ significantly from those of summer or winter goldfinches (Fig. 3). Basal levels for siskins and winter goldfinches were 40 and 50% higher, respectively, than values predicted by the appropriate equation of Aschoff and Pohl (1970) for passerine birds of similar size.
Summer goldfinches exposed to severe cold (−70°C) remain homeothermic for no more than 1 h. Winter goldfinches tolerate similar conditions for as much as 6–8 h (Fig. 5). All goldfinches tested in January remain homeothermic over at least 3 h below −60°C. None do so between April and October (Fig. 6).
Masses of dry contour plumage of goldfinches change from a mean of 0.57 g in January to 0.33 g in September. The changes in plumage mass are not coincident with the seasonal changes in resistance to severe cold (Fig. 7).
Metabolic rather than insulative adjustments appear primarily responsible for the acclimatization of American goldfinches and pine siskins to winter conditions in the northern United States.
KeywordsOxygen United States Ambient Temperature Seasonal Variation Oxygen Consumption
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Aschoff, J., Pohl, H.: Rhythmic variations in energy metabolism. Fed. Proc., Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol.29, 1541–1552 (1970)Google Scholar
- Barnett, L.B.: Seasonal changes in temperature acclimatization of the house sparrow,Passer domesticus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.33, 559–578 (1970)Google Scholar
- Bernstein, M.H., Thomas, S.P., Schmidt-Nielsen, K.: Power input during flight of the fish crow,Corvus ossifragus. J. exp. Biol.58, 401–410 (1973)Google Scholar
- Calder, W.A., King, J.R.: Thermal and caloric relations of birds. In: Avian biology, Vol. 4 (eds. D.S. Farner, J.R. King), pp. 259–413. New York: Academic Press 1974Google Scholar
- Chaffee, R.R.J., Mayhew, W.W., Drebin, M., Cassuto, Y.: Studies on thermogenesis in cold-acclimated birds. Canad. J. Biochem. Physiol.41, 2215–2220 (1963)Google Scholar
- Chaplin, S.B.: Daily energetics of the black-capped chickadee,Parus atricapillus, in winter. J. comp. Physiol.89, 321–330 (1974)Google Scholar
- Dawson, W.R.: Relation of oxygen consumption and evaporative water loss temperature in the cardinal. Physiol. Zool.31, 37–48 (1958)Google Scholar
- Dawson, W.R., Fisher, C.D.: Responses to temperature by the spotted nightjar (Eurostopodus guttatus). Condor71, 49–53 (1969)Google Scholar
- Dawson, W.R., Hudson, J.W.: Birds. In: Comparative physiology of thermoregulation, Vol. 1 (ed. G.C. Whittow), pp. 223–310. New York: Academic Press 1970Google Scholar
- Dawson, W.R., Tordoff, H.B.: Relation of oxygen consumption to temperature in the evening grosbeak. Condor61, 388–396 (1959)Google Scholar
- Dawson, W.R., Tordoff, H.B.: Relation of oxygen consumption to temperature in the red and white-winged crossbills. Auk81, 26–35 (1964)Google Scholar
- Depocas, F.J., Hart, J.S.: Use of the Pauling oxygen analyzer for measurement of oxygen consumption in open circuit systems and short-lag, closed circuit apparatus. J. appl. Physiol.10, 388–392 (1957)Google Scholar
- Drent, R.H., Stonehouse, B.: Thermoregulatory responses of the Peruvian penguin,Spheniscus humboldti. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.40A, 689–710 (1971)Google Scholar
- Evans, P.R.: Winter fat deposition and overnight survival of yellow buntings (Emberiza citrinella L.). J. anim. Ecol.38, 415–423 (1969)Google Scholar
- Gelineo, S.: Temperature d'adaptation et production de chaleur chez les oiseaux de petite taille. Arch. Sci. Physiol.9, 225–243 (1955)Google Scholar
- Gelineo, S.: Organ systems in adaptation: the temperature regulating system. In: Handbook of physiology, Sect. 4 (ed. D.B. Dill), pp. 259–282, Washington, D.C.: Amer. Physiol. Soc. 1964Google Scholar
- Hart, J.S.: Seasonal acclimatization in four species of small wild birds. Physiol. Zool.35, 224–236 (1962)Google Scholar
- Herreid, C.F., Kessel, B.: Thermal conductance in birds and mammals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.21, 405–414 (1967)Google Scholar
- Hissa, R., Palokangas, R.: Thermoregulation in the titmouse (Parus major L.). Comp. Biochem. Physiol.33, 941–953 (1970)Google Scholar
- Irving, L., Krog, H., Monson, M.: The metabolism of some Alaskan animals in winter and summer. Physiol. Zool.28, 173–185 (1955)Google Scholar
- King, J.R., Farner, D.S.: The adaptive role of winter fattening in the white-crowned sparrow with comments on its regulation. Amer. Nat.100, 403–418 (1966)Google Scholar
- Lindley, D.V.: Introduction to probability and statistics. London: Cambridge 1965Google Scholar
- Lustick, S., Adams, J.: Seasonal variation in the effects of wetting on the energetics and survival of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Physiol. Zool., in press (1976)Google Scholar
- Newton, L.: Winter fattening in the bullfinch. Physiol. Zool.42, 96–107 (1969)Google Scholar
- Palokangas, R., Nuuja, R., Koivusaari, J.: Seasonal changes in some thermoregulatory variables of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus L.). Comp. Biochem. Physiol.52A, 299–304 (1975)Google Scholar
- Pennycuick, C.J.: Mechanics of flight. In: Avian biology, Vol. 5, (eds. D.S. Farner, J.R. King), pp. 1–75. New York: Academic Press 1975Google Scholar
- Pohl, H.: Some factors influencing the metabolic response to cold in birds. Fed. Proc., Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol.28, 1059–1064 (1969)Google Scholar
- Pohl, H., West, G.C.: Daily and seasonal variation in metabolic response to cold during rest and forced excercise in the common redpoll. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.45A, 851–867 (1973)Google Scholar
- Richards, S.A.: Thermal homeostasis in birds. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond.35, 65–96 (1975)Google Scholar
- Rosenmann, M., Morrison, P.R.: Maximum oxygen consumption and heat loss facilitation in small homeotherms by He−O2. Amer. J. Physiol.226, 490–495 (1974)Google Scholar
- Rosenmann, M., Morrison, P., Feist, D.: Seasonal changes in the metabolic capacity of red-backed voles. Physiol. Zool.48, 303–310 (1975)Google Scholar
- Steen, J.: Climatic adaptation in some small northern birds. Ecology39, 625–629 (1958)Google Scholar
- Steen, J., Enger, P.S.: Muscular heat production in pigeons during exposure to cold. Amer. J. Physiol.191, 157–158 (1957)Google Scholar
- Tucker, V.A.: Respiratory exchange and evaporative water loss in the flying budgerigar. J. exp. Biol.48, 67–87 (1968)Google Scholar
- Tucker, V.A.: Metabolism during flight in the laughing gull,Larus atricilla. Amer. J. Physiol.222, 237–245 (1972)Google Scholar
- Turček, F.J.: On plumage quantity in birds. Ekol. Pol., Ser. A14, 617–633 (1966)Google Scholar
- Veghte, J.H.: Thermal and metabolic responses of the grey jay to cold stress. Physiol. Zool.37, 316–328 (1964)Google Scholar
- West, G.C.: Responses and adaptations of wild birds to environmental temperature. In: Comparative physiology of temperature regulation, Part 3, (eds. J.P. Hannon, E.G. Viereck), pp. 291–333. Fort Wainwright, Alaska: Arctic Aeromed. Lab. 1962Google Scholar
- West, G.C.: Shivering and heat production in wild birds. Physiol. Zool.38, 111–120 (1965)Google Scholar
- West, G.C.: The effect of acclimation and acclimatization on the resting metabolic rate of the common redpoll. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.43A, 293–310 (1972)Google Scholar
- West, G.C., Hart, J.S.: Metabolic responses of evening grosbeaks to constant and to fluctuating temperatures. Physiol. Zool.39, 171–184 (1966)Google Scholar
- Wetmore, A.: The number of contour feathers in passeriform and related birds. Auk53, 159–169 (1936)Google Scholar
- Wetmore, A., Friedmann, H., Amadon, D., Lincoln, F.C., Lowery, G.H., Jr., Miller, A.H., Peters, J.L., Pitelka, F.A., van Rossem, A.J., van Tyne, S., and Zimmer, J.T.: Checklist of North American birds, 5th ed. Baltimore: American Ornithologists' Union 1957Google Scholar