Advertisement

Journal of Comparative Physiology B

, Volume 156, Issue 4, pp 469–479 | Cite as

The sequential mobilisation and restoration of energy reserves in tissues of Atlantic cod during starvation and refeeding

  • Darcey Black
  • R. Malcolm Love
Article

Summary

  1. 1.

    In the early stages of starvation in cod (Gadus morhua L.), liver lipids and the glycogens of liver and white muscle were mobilised simultaneously, but liver lipids were exhausted first. At about that point, proteins began to be mobilised in red and white muscle, and red muscle glycogen also began to decrease. After about 20 weeks at 9°C, the latter was virtually exhausted, leaving muscle proteins as the only source of energy.

     
  2. 2.

    Starvation caused a significant fall in the glucose, lipids and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) of the blood. Ketone bodies seemed to be unimportant as sources of energy in starving cod, in contrast to elasmobranchs and mammals. Little change was observed in blood proteins or ninhydrin-positive substances.

     
  3. 3.

    When the cod were refed after starvation, overcompensation occurred in several metabolites, levels rising temporarily to values much higher than in continuously-fed controls. These comprised the glycogen contents of liver, red muscle and white muscle, NEFA in plasma and the RNA/DNA ratios of liver, red muscle and white muscle. Other constituents simply increased until their levels approached those of the controls. Liver lipids during refeeding did not rise above the low levels of starvation until the water content of the white muscle had dropped below about 82%.

     
  4. 4.

    When fish were refed after a shorter starvation period with squid muscle or herring muscle, only those refed with squid showed a significant rise in the muscle glycogen concentrations. Those fed on herring increased their liver lipids the more.

     
  5. 5.

    The differing periods of refeeding which gave rise to maximum values of red muscle glycogen and white muscle glycogen coincided respectively with maximum RNA/DNA ratios, suggesting that the purpose of unusually high glycogen values was to supply the energy for muscle regeneration.

     

Keywords

Muscle Protein Ketone Body Muscle Glycogen Glycogen Content White Muscle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviation

NEFA

nonesterified fatty acids

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AOAC (1965) Nitrogen (5). Micro-kjeldahl method-Official, final action. In: Horwitz W (ed) Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. AOAC Publications, Washington DC, pp 744–745Google Scholar
  2. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37:911–917Google Scholar
  3. Boddeke R, Slijper EJ, van der Stelt A (1959) Histological characteristics of the body-musculature of fishes in connection with their mode of life. Koninklijke Ned Akad van Wetenschappen Ser C 62:576–588Google Scholar
  4. Bouche G, Murat JC, Parent JP (1971) Study of the influence of synthetic (dietary) regimes on protein synthesis and the carbohydrate and lipid reserves in the liver of starving carp. CR Séanc Soc Biol 165:2202–2205Google Scholar
  5. Bouche G, Narbonne JF, Serfaty A (1972) Starvation and refeeding in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). III. Influence on polysomal and ribosomal RNA and on the soluble RNA. Arch Sci Physiol 26:101–109Google Scholar
  6. Bouche G, Vellas F, Serfaty A (1973) Influence of total prolonged starvation followed by a period of realimentation on the nucleic acids and the proteins of the white muscle of the common carp. CR Séanc Soc Biol 167:148–149Google Scholar
  7. Bratland P, Krishnan S, Sundnes G (1976) Studies on the long term storage of living saithe,Pollachius virens Linnaeus, 1758. FiskDir Skr Ser Havundersøk 16:279–300Google Scholar
  8. Bulow FJ (1969) Biochemical indicators of recent growth of fishes: RNA and DNA. PhD thesis, Iowa State University, University Microfilm no. 69-15,600Google Scholar
  9. Chavin W, Young JE (1970) Factors in the determination of normal serum glucose levels of goldfish,Carassius auratus L. Comp Biochem Physiol 33:629–653Google Scholar
  10. Créac'h Y (1972) Experimental starvation in carp: nitrogen metabolism and hydromineral equilibrium. Thesis Docteur ès-Sciences Naturelles, University Paul Sabatier de ToulouseGoogle Scholar
  11. Duncombe WG (1963) The colorimetric micro-determination of long-chain fatty acids. Biochem J 88:7–10Google Scholar
  12. Greer Walker M (1971) Effect of starvation and exercise on the skeletal muscle fibres of the cod (Gadus morhua L.) and the coalfish (Gadus virens L.) respectively. J Cons Int Explor Mer 33:421–426Google Scholar
  13. Gutman I, Wahlefeld AW (1974) L-(+)-Lactate. Determination with lactate dehydrogenase and NAD. In: Bergmeyer H (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Academic Press, London, pp 1464–1468Google Scholar
  14. Hanson SWF, Olley J (1963) Application of the Bligh and Dyer method of lipid extraction to tissue homogenates. Biochem J 89:101p-102pGoogle Scholar
  15. Idler DR, Bitners I (1960) Biochemical studies on sockeye salmon during spawning migration. IX. Fat, protein and water in the major internal organs and cholesterol in the liver and gonads of the standard fish. J Fish Res Bd Can 17:113–122Google Scholar
  16. Ince BW, Thorpe A (1976) The effects of starvation and forcefeeding on the metabolism of the northern pike,Esox lucius L. J Fish Biol 8:79–88Google Scholar
  17. Johnston IA (1981) Quantitative analysis of muscle breakdown during starvation in the marine flatfishPleuronectes platessa. Cell Tissue Res 214:369–386Google Scholar
  18. Johnston IA, Goldspink G (1973) Some effects of prolonged starvation on the metabolism of the red and white myotomal muscles of the plaicePleuronectes platessa. Mar Biol 19:348–353Google Scholar
  19. Kamra SK (1966) Effect of starvation and refeeding on some liver and blood constituents of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). J Fish Res Bd Can 23:975–982Google Scholar
  20. Keppler D, Decker K (1974) Glycogen Determination with amyloglucosidase. In: Bergmeyer H (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Academic Press, London, pp 1127–1131Google Scholar
  21. Larsson Å, Lewander K (1973) Metabolic effects of starvation in the eel,Anguilla anguilla L. Comp Biochem Physiol 44A:367–374Google Scholar
  22. Love RM (1970) The chemical biology of fishes. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Love RM (1979) The post-mortem pH of cod and haddock muscle and its seasonal variation. J Sci Fd Agric 30:433–438Google Scholar
  24. Love RM (1980) The chemical biology of fishes, vol 2. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Matthews DM, Muir GG, Baron DM (1964) Estimation of α-amino nitrogen in plasma and urine by the colorimetric ninhydrin reaction. J Clin Pathol 17:150–153Google Scholar
  26. Morata P, Vargas AM, Sánchez-Medina F, Garcia M, Cardenete G, Zamora S (1982) Evolution of gluconeogenic enzyme activities during starvation in liver and kidney of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Comp Biochem Physiol 71B:65–70Google Scholar
  27. Munro HN, Fleck A (1966) Recent developments in the measurement of nucleic acids in biological materials. Analyst 91:78–88Google Scholar
  28. Munro LJ (1980) Aspects of the physiology of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua L.). PhD thesis, University of Aberdeen, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  29. Murat JC (1976) Studies on the mobilisation of tissular carbohydrates in the carp. Thesis, Docteur d'Etat, University of ToulouseGoogle Scholar
  30. Nagai M, Ikeda S (1971) Carbohydrate metabolism in fish-I. Effects of starvation and dietary composition on the blood glucose level and the hepatopancreatic glycogen and lipid contents in carp. Bull Jpn Soc Scient Fish 37:404–409Google Scholar
  31. Niimi AJ (1972) Changes in the proximate body composition of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) with starvation. Can J Zool 50:815–819Google Scholar
  32. Patterson S, Johnston IA, Goldspink G (1974) The effect of starvation on the chemical composition of red and white muscles in the plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Experientia 30:892–894Google Scholar
  33. Rae BB (1967) The food of cod in the North Sea and on west of Scotland grounds. Mar Res (1) HMSO, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  34. Renaud JM, Moon TW (1980) Starvation and the metabolism of hepatocytes isolated from the American eel,Anguilla rostrata LeSueur. J Comp Physiol 135:127–137Google Scholar
  35. Schmidt G, Thannhauser SJ (1945) A method for the determination of desoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and phosphoproteins in animal tissues. J Biol Chem 161:83–89Google Scholar
  36. Shul'man GE (1972) Life cycles of fish. Physiology and biochemistry. Translated from the Russian by N. Kaner. John Wiley and Sons, New York TorontoGoogle Scholar
  37. Stirling HP (1976) Effects of experimental feeding and starvation on the proximate composition of the European bassDicentrarchus labrax. Mar Biol 34:85–91Google Scholar
  38. Takama K, Love RM, Smith GL (1985) Selectivity in the mobilisation of stored fatty acids by maturing cod,Gadus morhua L. Comp Biochem Physiol 80B:713–718Google Scholar
  39. Tashima L, Cahill GF (1968) Effects of insulin in the toadfish,Opsanus tau. Gen Comp Endocrinol 11:262–271Google Scholar
  40. Wieland O (1974) Glycerol. UV-method. In: Bergmeyer H (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Academic Press, London, pp 1404–1409Google Scholar
  41. Williamson DH, Mellanby J (1974) D-(−)-3-hydroxybutyrate. In: Bergmeyer H (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Academic Press, London, pp 1836–1843Google Scholar
  42. Zammit VA, Newsholme EA (1979) Activities of enzymes of fat and ketone-body metabolism and effects of starvation on blood concentrations of glucose and fat fuels in teleost and elasmobrach fish. Biochem J 184:313–322Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darcey Black
    • 1
  • R. Malcolm Love
    • 1
  1. 1.Torry Research StationAberdeenScotland

Personalised recommendations