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Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 157–160 | Cite as

Alteration of dacarbazine pharmacokinetics after interleukin-2 administration in melanoma patients

  • Guy G. Chabot
  • Lawrence E. Flaherty
  • Manuel Valdivieso
  • Laurence H. Baker
Original Articles Decarbazine Pharmacokinetics, Interleukin-2, Melanoma

Summary

In an effort to improve the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, we evaluated the sequential administration of the chemotherapeutic agent dacarbazine (DTIC) and the biological response modifier interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in a phase I–II study. Since the combination of biological response modifiers and chemotherapeutic agents could alter drug disposition, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of DTIC and its major metabolite, 5-aminoimidazole 4-carboxamide (AIC), before and after rIL-2 administration. DTIC (1 g/m2, 24-h i.v. infusion) was given on day 1 and rIL-2 (2–4 million Cetus units/m2, 30-min i.v. injection), on days 15–19 and 22–26 of each course of therapy. The second DTIC dose was given on day 29, i.e., 3 days after the last rIL-2 administration. DTIC and AIC were assayed by reversed-phase HPLC. DTIC plasma levels showed a significant decrease after rIL-2 administration as compared with DTIC values obtained in the same patients before rIL-2 administration. DTIC area under the curve (AUC) values obtained after rIL-2 were lower than those obtained on day 1 before rIL-2 administration (P=0.02). After rIL-2, the total body clearance (ClT) was increased (P=0.04), as was the volume of distribution at steady state (Vss;P=0.02). The decrease in AUC after rIL-2 administration became more pronounced as the rIL-2 dose was increased (P=0.03). No significant difference was detected in the elimination phase of DTIC when halflives obtained before and after rIL-2 administration were compared; the mean half-lives were 0.7 and 2.8 h for the α- and β-phases, respectively. The model-independent mean residence time was 3.4 h. The plasma AUC for the metabolite AIC did not charge after rIL-2 administration. AIC biphasic plasma elimination was also similar after rIL-2 administration, with α- and β-half-lives of 0.7 and 11.4 h, respectively. Urinary excretion of DTIC and AIC did not differ after rIL-2 administration; the overall DTIC excretion was 39% of the dose over 48 h, and AIC urinary excretion was 25% of the DTIC dose. The observed decrease in the DTIC plasma AUC after rIL-2 administration appears to be due to an increase in the volume of distribution, since other factors such as half-lives, urinary excretion, and metabolism were not significantly altered. The clinical consequences of the rIL-2-DTIC interaction remain difficult to assess based on presently available data, but this drug interaction should be taken into consideration in the development of future chemo-immunotherapy regimens that include high-dose rIL-2.

Keywords

Melanoma Urinary Excretion Metastatic Malignant Melanoma Melanoma Patient Drug Disposition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guy G. Chabot
    • 1
  • Lawrence E. Flaherty
    • 1
  • Manuel Valdivieso
    • 1
  • Laurence H. Baker
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Hematology and OncologyWayne State University of MedicineDetroitUSA

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