Applied Physics B

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 145–152 | Cite as

Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy

Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis
  • G. C. Bjorklund
  • M. D. Levenson
  • W. Lenth
  • C. Ortiz
Invited Papers

Abstract

Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy is a new method of optical heterodyne spectroscopy capable of sensitive and rapid measurement of the absorption or dispersion associated with narrow spectral features. The absorption or dispersion is measured by detecting the heterodyne beat signal that occurs when the FM optical spectrum of the probe wave is distorted by the spectral feature of interest. A short historical perspective and survey of the FM spectroscopy work performed to date is presented. Expressions describing the nature of the beat signal are derived. Theoretical lineshapes for a variety of experimental conditions are given. A signal-to-noise analysis is carried out to determine the ultimate sensitivity limits.

PACS

07.65 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. C. Bjorklund
    • 1
  • M. D. Levenson
    • 1
  • W. Lenth
    • 2
  • C. Ortiz
    • 3
  1. 1.IBM Research LaboratorySan JoseUSA
  2. 2.MIT Lincoln LaboratoryLexingtonUSA
  3. 3.Instituto de OpticaMadridSpain

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