Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 20–28 | Cite as

Recent uplift and hydrothermal activity at Tangkuban Parahu volcano, west Java, Indonesia

  • John Dvorak
  • Johannes Matahelumual
  • Arnold T Okamura
  • Harun Said
  • Thomas J Casadevall
  • Dedi Mulyadi


Tangkuban Parahu is an active stratovolcano located 17 km north of the city of Bandung in the province west Java, Indonesia. All historical eruptive activity at this volcano has been confined to a complex of explosive summit craters. About a dozen eruptions-mostly phreatic events- and 15 other periods of unrest, indicated by earthquakes or increased thermal activity, have been noted since 1829. The last magmatic eruption occurred in 1910. In late 1983, several small phreatic explosions originated from one of the summit craters. More recently, increased hydrothermal and earthquake activity occurred from late 1985 through 1986. Tilt measurements, using a spirit-level technique, have been made every few months since February 1981 in the summit region and along the south and east flanks of the volcano. Measurements made in the summit region indicated uplift since the start of these measurements through at least 1986. From 1981 to 1983, the average tilt rate at the edges of the summit craters was 40–50 microradians per year. After the 1983 phreatic activity, the tilt rate decreased by about a factor of five. Trilateration surveys across the summit craters and on the east flank of the volcano were conducted in 1983 and 1986. Most line length changes measured during this three-year period did not exceed the expected uncertainty of the technique (4 ppm). The lack of measurable horizontal strain across the summit craters seems to contradict the several years of tilt measurements. Using a point source of dilation in an elastic half-space to model tilt measurements, the pressure center at Tangkuban Parahu is located about 1.5 km beneath the southern part of the summit craters. This is beneath the epicentral area of an earthquake swarm that occurred in late 1983. The average rate in the volume of uplift from 1981 to 1983 was 3 million m3 per year; from 1983 to 1986 it averaged about 0.4 million m3 per year. Possible causes for this uplift are increased pressure within a very shallow magma body or heating and expansion of a confined aquifier.


Indonesia Earthquake Swarm Summit Crater Horizontal Strain Magmatic Eruption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Berrino G, Corrado G, Luongo G, Toro B (1984) Ground deformation and gravity changes accompanying the 1982 Pozzuoli uplift. Bull Volcanol 47:187–200Google Scholar
  2. Casertano L, Oliveri del Castillo A, Quagliariello MT (1969) Hydrodynamics and geodynamics in the Phlegraean Fields area of Italy. Nature 264:161–164Google Scholar
  3. Chester DK, Duncan AM, Guest JE, Kilburn CRJ (1985) Mount Etna: The Anatomy of a Volcano. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 404 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Corrado G, Guerra I, Lo Bascio A, Luongo G, Rampoldi F (1976/77) Inflation and microearthquake activity of Phlegraean Fields, Italy. Bull Volcanol 40:169–188Google Scholar
  5. Decker RW, Hill DP, Wright TL (1966) Deformation measurements on Kilauea Volcano Hawaii. Bull Volcanol 29:721–732Google Scholar
  6. Decker RW, Koyanagi RY, Dvorak J, Lockwood JP, Okamura AT, Yamashita KM, Tanigawa WT (1983) Seismicity and surface deformation of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii. EOS 64:545–547Google Scholar
  7. Dvorak J, Okamura A, Dieterich JH (1983) Analysis of surface deformation data, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: October 1966 to September 1970. J Geophys Res 88:9295–9304Google Scholar
  8. Eaton JP (1962) Crustal structure and volcanism in Hawaii. Am Geophys Union Monograph 6:13–29Google Scholar
  9. Fiske RS, Kinoshita WT (1969) Inflation of Kilauea Volcano prior to its 1967–1968 eruption. Science 165:341–349Google Scholar
  10. Hadikusumo D (1961) Report of the volcanological research and volcanic activity in Indonesia for the period 1950–1957. Bull Volcanol Surv Indonesia, Bandung, No 100:122 pGoogle Scholar
  11. Hadisantono RS, Juwarna H, Seotoyo (1986) Geologic Map of Tangkuban Parahu Volcano, Bandung, West Java. Volcanol Surv Indonesia, Bandung, Open-File Map 1:50 000Google Scholar
  12. Hamilton W (1979) Tectonics of the Indonesian Region. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1078:345 pGoogle Scholar
  13. Kinoshita WT, Swanson DA, Jackson DB (1974) The measurement of crustal deformation related to volcanic activity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. In: Civetta L, Gasparini P, Luongo G, Rapolla A (eds) Physical volcanology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 87–115Google Scholar
  14. Kusumadinata K (1979) Data Dasur Gunungapi Indonesia. Volcanol Surv Indonesia, Bandung, 820 pGoogle Scholar
  15. McKee CO, Lowenstein PL, de Saint Ours P, Talai B, Itikarai I, Mori JJ (1984) Seismic and ground deformation crises at Rabaul caldera: prelude to an eruption? Bull Volcanol 47:397–411Google Scholar
  16. Mogi K (1958) Relations between the eruptions of various volcanoes and the deformation of the ground surface around them. Bull Earth Res Inst 36:99–134Google Scholar
  17. Neumann van Padang M (1951) Indonesia: catalogue of active volcanoes of the world. Vol 1, IAVCEI, 271 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Newhall CG, Dzurisin D (1988) Historical unrest at large calderas of the world, US Geol Surv Bull 1855, 1108 pGoogle Scholar
  19. Savage JC, Cockerham RS (1984) Earthquake swarm in Long Valley caldera, California, January 1983: evidence for dike intrusion. J Geophys Res 89:8315–8324Google Scholar
  20. Silitonga PH (1973) Peta Geologi Lembar Bandung, Djawa (Geologic map of the Bandung guadrangle, Java). Geol Surv Indonesia, Ministry of Mines, scale 1:100 000Google Scholar
  21. Stehn CE (1929) Tangkoeban Prahoe: excursion guide B.3. VI Pacific Science Congress, Bandung, 22 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Suryo I (1981) Report of the volcanic activity in Indonesia for the period 1961–1963. Bull Volcanol Surv Indonesia, Bandung No 104:116 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Suryo I (1985) Report of the volcanic activity in Indonesia for the period 1964–1970. Bull Volcanol Surv Indonesia, Bandung No 106:150 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Tija HD (1968) The Lembang fault, West Java. Geol Minjbou 47:126–130Google Scholar
  25. Tryggvason E (1980) Subsidence events in the Krafla area, North Iceland, 1975–1979. J Geophys 47:141–153Google Scholar
  26. Van Bemmelan RW (1949) The geology of Indonesia. Vol IA, Goverment Printing Office, The Hague, 732 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Wadge G (1982) Steady state volcanism: evidence from eruption histories of polygenetic volcanoes. J Geophys Res 87:4035–4049Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Dvorak
    • 1
  • Johannes Matahelumual
    • 2
  • Arnold T Okamura
    • 1
  • Harun Said
    • 2
  • Thomas J Casadevall
    • 3
  • Dedi Mulyadi
    • 2
  1. 1.U.S. Geological SurveyHawaiian Volcano ObservatoryUSA
  2. 2.Volcanological Survey of IndonesiaBandungIndonesia
  3. 3.Federal CenterU.S. Geological SurveyDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations