Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 105, Issue 2, pp 197–218 | Cite as

Evolution of alkalic lavas at Haleakala Volcano, east Maui, Hawaii

Major, trace element and isotopic constraints
  • C. -Y. Chen
  • F. A. Frey
  • M. O. Garcia
Article

Abstract

The postshield and posterosional stages of Haleakala Volcano contain intercalated alkalic basalt and evolved alkalic lavas. Isotopic and incompatible element abundance ratios in the Haleakala postshield basalts changed systematically with time, providing evidence for significant temporal changes in the mantle components contributing to the magmatic sources. Specifically, a depleted, i.e. low87Sr/86Sr and high143Nd/144Nd, mantle component is more abundant in younger lavas. However, as magma-production rates decreased during the postshield and posterosional stages, basaltic melts in magma reservoirs cooled and fractionated, leading to evolved residual melts such as hawaiite. Because primary basalt compositions changed with time, the evolved Haleakala lavas formed from a range of parental compositions. However, basalts and evolved lavas of similar age and isotopic ratios (Sr and Nd) have major and trace element contents that are consistent with a crystal-fractionation model. Although alkalic basalt and hawaiite are the dominant lavas of the postshield stages of both Haleakala and Mauna Kea volcanoes, there are important differences between their lavas. For example, compositional differences between the hawaiite suites at Haleakala and Mauna Kea indicate that, on average, the evolved lavas at Haleakala formed at lower pressures. Also, at Haleakala basalts are intercalated with hawaiites, whereas at Mauna Kea basalts and hawaiites are separated by a sharp boundary. These differences probably reflect a higher magma supply rate to the Haleakala volcano.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arth JG (1976) The behavior of trace elements during magmatic processes: A summary of theoretical models and their applications. J Res US Geol Surv 4:41–47Google Scholar
  2. Chen C-Y, Frey FA (1983) Origin of Hawaiian tholeiite and alkalic basalt. Nature 302:785–789Google Scholar
  3. Chen C-Y, Frey FA (1985) Trace element and isotopic geochemistry of lavas from Haleakala volcano, East Maui, Hawaii: implications for the origin of Hawaiian basalts. J Geophys Res 90:8743–8768Google Scholar
  4. Clague DA (1987) Hawaiian xenolith populations, magma supply rates, and development of magma chambers. Bull Volcanol 49:577–587Google Scholar
  5. Clague DA, Dalrymple GB (1987) The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. Part 1. Geologic evolution. US Geol Surv Prof Paper 1350:5–54Google Scholar
  6. Clague DA, Frey FA, Thompson G, Rindge S (1981) Minor and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks dredged from the Galapagos spreading center: Role of crystal fractionation and mantle heterogeneity. J Geophys Res 86:9469–9481Google Scholar
  7. Coombs DS, Wilkinson JFG (1969) Lineages and fractionation trends in undersaturated volcanic rocks from the East Otago volcanic province (New Zealand) and related rocks. J Petrol 10:440–501Google Scholar
  8. Defant MJ, Nielsen RL (1990) Interpretations of open system petrogenetic processes: phase equilibria constraints on magma evolution. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:87–102Google Scholar
  9. Fodor RV, Keil K (1979) Review of the mineral chemistry of volcanic rocks from Maui, Hawaii. Hawaii symposium on intraplate volcanism and submarine volcanism. Abstract volume 93–106Google Scholar
  10. Fodor RV, Keil K, Bunch TE (1975) Contributions to the mineral chemistry of Hawaiian rocks, IV., Pyroxene in rocks from Haleakala and West Maui volcanoes, Maui, Hawaii. Contrib Mineral Petrol 50:173–195Google Scholar
  11. Fodor RV, Keil K, Bunch TE (1977) Contributions to the mineral chemistry of Hawaiian rocks, VI., Olivine in rocks from Haleakala and West Maui volcanoes, Maui, Hawaii. Pacific Sci 31:299–308Google Scholar
  12. Frey FA, Green DH, Roy SD (1978) Integrated models of basalt petrogenesis: A study of quartz tholeiites to olivine melilitites from southeastern Australia utilizing geochemical and experimental petrological data. J Petrol 19:463–513Google Scholar
  13. Frey FA, Wise WS, Garcia MO, West H, Kwon ST, Kennedy A (1990) Evolution of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Petrologic and geochemical constraints on postshield volcanism. J Geophys Res 95:1271–1300Google Scholar
  14. Fujimaki H, Tatsumoto M, McKay GA, Wagstaff J (1984) Partition coefficients of Hf, Zr, and REE between ilmenite and liquid. (abstract) Lunar Planet Sci XV:282–283Google Scholar
  15. Garcia MO, Frey FA, Grooms DG (1986) Petrology of volcanic rocks from Kaula Island, Hawaii: implications for the origin of Hawaiian phonolites. Contrib Mineral Petrol 94:461–471Google Scholar
  16. Grove TL, Bence AE (1979) Crystallization kinetics in a multiply saturated basalt magma: an experimental study of Lunar 24 ferrobasalt. Proc Lunar Planet Sci Conf 10th 439–478Google Scholar
  17. Hart SR, Brooks C (1974) Clinopyroxene-matrix partitioning of K, Rb, Cs, Sr and Ba. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 38:1799–1806Google Scholar
  18. Helz RT (1987) Diverse olivine types in lavas of the 1959 eruption of Kilauea volcano and their bearing on eruption dynamics. US Geol Surv Prof Paper 1350:691–722Google Scholar
  19. Juster TC, Grove TL (1989) Experimental constraints on the generation of Fe−Ti basalts, andesites and rhyodacites at the Galapagos spreading center, 85° W and 95° W. J Geophys Res 94:9251–9274Google Scholar
  20. Keil K, Fodor RV, Bunch TE (1972) Contributions to the mineral chemistry of Hawaiian rocks, II., Feldspars in rocks from Haleakala and Est Maui volcanoes, Maui, Hawaii. Contrib Mineral Petrol 37:253–276Google Scholar
  21. Klein FW, Koyanagi RY, Nakata JS, Tanigawa WR (1987) The seismicity of Kilauea's magma system. US Geol Surv Prof Paper 1350:1019–1185Google Scholar
  22. Kurz MD, Garcia MO, Frey FA, O'Brien PA (1987) Temporal helium isotopic variations within Hawaiian volcanoes: basalts from Mauna Loa and Halcakala. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 51:2905–2914Google Scholar
  23. Lamarchand F, Villemant B, Calas G (1987) Trace element distribution coefficients in alkaline series. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 51:1071–1082Google Scholar
  24. Le Bas MJ, Le Maitre RW, Streckeisen A, Zanettin B (1986) A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali-silica diagram. J Petrol 27:745–750Google Scholar
  25. Maaloe S, Pedersen RB, James D (1988) Delayed fractionation of basaltic lavas. Contrib Mineral Petrol 98:401–407Google Scholar
  26. Macdonald GA (1978) Geologic map of the crater section of Haleakala National park, Maui, Hawaii. US Geol Surv Miscellaneous Investigations Ser Map I-1088, scale 1:24000, with 8 p textGoogle Scholar
  27. Macdonald GA, Katsura T (1964) Chemical composition of Hawaiian lavas. J Petrol 5:82–133Google Scholar
  28. Macdonald GA, Powers HA (1968) A further contribution to the petrology of Haleakala volcano, Hawaii. Geol Soc Am Bull 79:877–888Google Scholar
  29. Macdonald GA, Abbot AT, Peterson FL (1983) Volcanoes in the sea. Univ Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 517 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Mahood GA, Baker DR (1986) Experimental constraints on depths of fractionation of mildly alkalic basalts and associated felsic rocks: Pantelleria, Strait of Sicily. Contrib Mineral Petrol 93:251–264Google Scholar
  31. McKay GA, Wagstaff J, Yang S-R (1986) Zirconium, hafnium, and rare earth element partition coefficients for ilmenite and other minerals in high-Ti lunar mare basalts: An experimental study. J Geophys Res 91:D229-D237Google Scholar
  32. Nakamura Y, Fujimaki H, Nakamura N, Tatsumoto M (1986) Hf, Zr and REE partition coefficients between ilmenite and liquid: implications for the lunar petrogenesis. J Geophys Res 91:D239-D250Google Scholar
  33. Naughton JJ, Macdonald GA, Greenberg VA (1980) Some additional potassium-argon ages of hawaiian rocks: the Maui Volcanic Complex of Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Kahoolawe. J Volcan Geotherm Res 7:339–355Google Scholar
  34. Nielsen RL (1988) A model for the simulation of combined major and trace element liquid lines of descent. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 52:27–38Google Scholar
  35. Nielsen RL, Glazner AF, Baker DE, Nekvasil H, Russell JI (1987) Development in phase equilibria models for igneous systems. EOS:121–127Google Scholar
  36. O'Hara MJ, Mathews RE (1981) Geochemical evolution in an advancing, periodically replenished, periodically tapped, continuously fractionated magma chamber. J Geol Soc London 138:237–277Google Scholar
  37. Pearce JA, Norry MJ (1979) Petrogenetic implications of Ti, Zr, Y and Nb variations in volcanic rocks. Contrib Mineral Petrol B69:33–47Google Scholar
  38. Philpotts JA, Schnetzler CC (1970) Phenocryst-matrix partition coefficients for K, Rb, Sr, and Ba with applications to anorthosite and basalt genesis. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 34:307–322Google Scholar
  39. Philpotts JA, Schnetzler CC, Thomas HH (1972) Petrogenetic implications of some new geochemical data on ecologite and ultra-basic inclusions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 36:1131–1166Google Scholar
  40. Roeder PL, Emislie RF (1970) Olivine-liquid equilibrium. Contrib Mineral Petrol 29:275–289Google Scholar
  41. Sack RO, Walker D, and Carmichael ISE (1987) Experimental petrology of alkalic lavas: constraints on cotectics of multiple saturation in natural basic liquids. Contrib Mineral Petrol 96:1–23Google Scholar
  42. Spengler S, Garcia MO (1988) Geochemistry of Hawi lavas, Kohala Volcano, Hawaii. Contrib Mineral Petrol 99:90–104Google Scholar
  43. Spulber SD, Rutherford MJ (1983) The origin of rhyolite and plagiogranite in ocean crust: an experimental study. J Petrol 24:1–25Google Scholar
  44. Stearns HT, Macdonald GA (1942) Geology and ground-water resources of the Island of Maui, Hawaii. Hawaii Div Hydrography Bull 7, 344 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Sun S-S, Nesbitt RW, Sharaskin AY (1979) Geochemical characteristics of mid-ocean ridge basalt. Earth Planet Sci Lett 44:119–138Google Scholar
  46. Watson EB, Othman DB, Luck J-M, Hofmann AW (1987) Partitioning of U, Pb, Cs, Yb, Hf, Re and Os between chromian diopsidic pyroxene and haplobasaltic liquid. Chem Geol 62:191–208Google Scholar
  47. West HB, Leeman WP (1987) Isotopic evolution of lavas from Haleakala Crater, Hawaii. Earth Planet Sci Lett 84:211–225Google Scholar
  48. West HB, Garcia MO, Frey FA, Kennedy A (1988) Nature and cause of compositional variation among alkalic cap lavas of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. Contrib Mineral Petrol 100:383–397Google Scholar
  49. Wood DA, Joron J-L, Treuil M (1979) A re-appraisal of the use of trace elements to classify and discriminate between magma series erupted in different tectonic settings. Earth Planet Sci Lett 45:326–336Google Scholar
  50. Wright TL (1971) Chemistry of Kilauea and Mauna Loa lavas in space and time. US Geol Surv Prof Paper 735:40 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. -Y. Chen
    • 1
  • F. A. Frey
    • 2
  • M. O. Garcia
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary SciencesMITCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.Hawaii Institute of GeophysicsUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations