Oxidation of Metals

, Volume 30, Issue 3–4, pp 259–266 | Cite as

The importance of interfacial chemistry in protective oxide scale adherence

  • J. G. Smeggil
  • N. S. Bornstein
  • M. A. DeCrescente
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The results of studies involving both alumina and chromia formers have demonstrated that segregation of low levels of indigenous impurity elements commonly found in metals and alloys can segregate to the scale-metal interface. Such segregation markedly affects protective-oxide-scale adherence to produce scale exfoliation. The most important element to cause exfoliation effects is sulfur, which is not uncommonly present in metals and alloys to levels of ∼50 ppm. The reduction of such sulfur to the 1–2 ppm range strongly increases oxide scale adherence without requiring additions of “active” elements, such as yttrium. The results of experiments that led to this conclusion are reiterated.

Key words

oxidation adhesion growth mechanisms sulfur impurities segregation 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. G. Smeggil
    • 1
  • N. S. Bornstein
    • 1
  • M. A. DeCrescente
    • 1
  1. 1.United Technologies Research CenterE. Hartford

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