Journal of comparative physiology

, Volume 124, Issue 4, pp 357–361 | Cite as

The pineal body: Site of extraocular perception of celestial cues for orientation in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum)

  • Douglas H. Taylor
  • Kraig Adler


Tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) trained to orient in a particular compass direction under the sun fail to orient in the trained direction if they are (i) eyeless and simultaneously have the brain covered with opaque plastic or are (ii) eyeless and pinealectomized (Fig. 1–2, Table 1). Salamanders with either the eyes or the pineal intact and unobstructed continue to orient in the trained direction. These data strongly support the hypothesis that the pineal body is an effective extraocular photoreceptor (EOP) for compass orientation in tiger salamanders.


Tiger Salamander Compass Direction Opaque Plastic Pineal Body Compass Orientation 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas H. Taylor
    • 1
  • Kraig Adler
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyMiami UniversityOxfordUSA
  2. 2.Section of Neurobiology and BehaviorCornell University, Langmuir LaboratoryIthacaUSA

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