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The Hubble relation: Differences between galaxy types Sb and Sc

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Abstract

The most accurate data on galaxy types, corrected apparent magnitudes and redshifts as given in the Sandage-TammanRevised Shapley-Ames catalog are analyzed. It is shown that Sb galaxies of the same luminosity class as M31 and M81 define a narrow Hubble relation withH 0=65 −6 +15 km s−1 Mpc−1.

In contrast, Sc galaxies deviate strongly towars higher redshift from a linear, log redshift—apparent magnitude relation. Not all this deviation can be selection effect due to increasing volume sampled at increasing redshift (Malmquist bias). Physical associations of groups of galaxies in theRSA Catalog are used to establish the existence of various amounts of excess (non-velocity) redshifts among Sc and allied types of galaxies.

Independent distances fromHi line width — luminosity criterion (Tully-Fisher) are analyzed. It is shown that this criterion gives much smaller distances than redshifts do for galaxies which deviate above the Hubble line. Unless the Tully-Fisher relation gives too small distances for more luminous galaxies, this confirms the excess redshift to be intrinsic to the Galaxy. But it is next demonstrated, that for low redshift galaxies, there is no discrepancy between redshift and Tully-Fisher distance even though there is a wide range of absolute magnitudes.

If Tully-Fisher distances are accepted, the onlly alternative to having a Hubble constant which increases strongly with distance is to have a component of the higher redshift Sc's contributed by a non-recessional redshift. Streaming motions would have to be large, increase with distance and be always in the receding sence. It is shown here that the Sc's which deviate most from the Hubble relation and have the largest discrepancies with Tully-Filsher distances lie predominantly in the sky toward very nearby groups of galaxies. If they were at these closer distances the discordant galaxies, mostly ScI's, would have dwarfish physical properties but not so unprecedented as the large sizes which result from redshift distances.

Finally the interaction of specific high redshift ScI's with nearby galaxies is presented as an independent proof that ScI's are generally small, low luminosity galaxies. This result furnishes insight into the long standing puzzle of how apparently distant ScI's can interact with nearby galaxies such as in Stephan's Quintet, Seyfert's Sextet and NGC 4151/4156.

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Arp, H. The Hubble relation: Differences between galaxy types Sb and Sc. Astrophys Space Sci 167, 183–219 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00659347

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Keywords

  • High Redshift
  • Apparent Magnitude
  • Nearby Galaxy
  • Galaxy Type
  • Redshift Galaxy