Unilateral nervous control of the syrinx in java sparrows (Padda oryzivora)
- 46 Downloads
The syrinx of song birds contains two sound sources, the internal tympaniform membranes located one in each bronchus, that are controlled by the syringeal musculature. These muscles are innervated by the cervicalis descendens superior (CDS) branch of the hypoglossal nerve. Unilateral sections of the left CDS nerve in Java sparrows markedly disrupted tonal quality of the songs, although temporal parameters were unaltered. Bilateral CDS nerve sections caused greater disruption in frequency characteristics and temporal parameters were altered. Most birds died due to asphyxia soon after the operation. Right CDS nerve sections had much less effect, except on long whistles where extra low frequency sounds appeared, probably from the denervated right bronchus. Intact song pattern was restored within four months without re-innervation of the right syringeal musculature. This unilateral dominance in the control of the syrinx agrees with previous work and adds to the support for the “two voice” theory of sound production in birds (Greenewalt, 1968; Stein, 1968).
KeywordsStein Frequency Characteristic Sound Source Temporal Parameter Frequency Sound
Nervus cervicalis descendens superior
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Goodwin, D.: Observations on Java sparrows. Avicult. Mag. 69, 54–69 (1963)Google Scholar
- Greenewalt, C.H.: Bird song — acoustics and physiology. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press 1968Google Scholar
- Marler, P.: Tonal quality of bird sounds. In: Bird vocalisations. Hinde, R.A. (ed.). London: Cambridge University Press 1969Google Scholar
- Marley, E., Payne, J.P.: Halothane anaesthesia in the fowl. In: Small animal anaesthesia. London: Pergamon Press 1964Google Scholar
- Nottebohm, F.: Asymmetries in neural control of vocalisation in the canary. In: Lateralisation in the nervous system. Harnard, S., Doty, R.W., Goldstein, L., Jaynes, J., Kranthamer, G. (eds.). New York: Academic Press 1977Google Scholar
- Seller, T.J.: Observations on the sexual behaviour of Java sparrows, Padda oryzivora. Avicult. Mag. 80, 172–176 (1974)Google Scholar
- Thorpe, W.H.: Bird song: the biology of vocal communications and expression in birds. London: Cambridge University Press 1961Google Scholar