Journal of comparative physiology

, Volume 125, Issue 4, pp 301–303 | Cite as

Eye closure in toads (Bufo bufo L.) does not produce off responses in retinal on-off ganglion cells: A question of efferent commands

  • H. -W. Borchers
  • J. -P. Ewert
Article

Summary

  1. 1.

    There are ganglion cells in the toad's retina which respond to sudden changes in diffuse light levels with bursts of spikes at “on” and “off”.

     
  2. 2.

    New results from experiments in freely moving unrestrained toadsBufo bufo (L.) with chronically implanted twin micro recording electrodes show that theoff response of these neurons fail to occur if the animal closes its eye completely.

     
  3. 3.

    The results may indicate efferent inhibition in retinal networks.

     

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References

  1. Autrum, H.: Das Fehlen unwillkürlicher Augenbewegungen beim Frosch. Naturwissenschaften46, 435 (1959)Google Scholar
  2. Borchers, H.-W.: Methodische Grundlagen für die Erforschung des visuellen Systems. Math. nat. Dissertation, Kassel 1974Google Scholar
  3. Borchers, H.-W.: Question of an efference-copy in the “eye blinking toad”. IFAC—Symposium on control mechanisms in bioand ecosystems, Vol. 3, pp. 49–50 (supplement: pp. 28–34). Leipzig: Kammer der Technik 1977Google Scholar
  4. Ewert, J.-P.: The visual system of the toad: Behavioral and physiological studies on a pattern recognition system. In: The amphibian visual system: A multidisciplinary approach (ed. K.V. Fite). New York —San Francisco —London: Academic Press 1976Google Scholar
  5. Ewert, J.-P., Borchers, H.-W.: Antwort von retinalen Ganglienzellen bei freibeweglichen Kröten (Bufo bufo L.). J. comp. Physiol.92, 117–130 (1974a)Google Scholar
  6. Ewert, J.-P., Borchers, H.W.: Inhibition of toad (Bufo bufo L.) retinal on-off and off-ganglion cells via active eye closing. Vision Res.14, 1275–1276 (1974b)Google Scholar
  7. Grüsser, O.-J., Grüsser-Cornehls, U.: Neurophysiology of the anuran visual system. In: Frog neuro-biology (eds. R. Llinás, W. Precht). Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1976Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. -W. Borchers
    • 1
  • J. -P. Ewert
    • 1
  1. 1.Neuro-Ethology and Biocybernetic LaboratoriesUniversity of KasselKasselFederal Republic of Germany

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