Advertisement

Journal of comparative physiology

, Volume 125, Issue 3, pp 267–273 | Cite as

Endogenously controlled changes in migratory direction of the garden warbler,Sylvia borin

  • Eberhard Gwinner
  • Wolfgang Wiltschko
Article

Summary

Garden warblers breeding in central Europe and wintering in tropical and southern Africa show characteristic changes in flight direction during their fall migration: they initially leave their breeding grounds in a southwest direction but then change to S or SSE in southern Spain or northern Africa. Since it had been demonstrated in previous studies that several features of this species' migratory activity are dependent on endogenous timing processes, the hypothesis was proposed that the changes in migratory direction are also endogenously controlled. To test this hypothesis a total of 59 garden warblers were handraised and subsequently kept under constant temperature and photoperiodic conditions throughout the fall migratory season. At regular intervals the birds were moved to circular orientation cages in which they were tested for directional preferences in their nocturnal migratory restlessness. In these orientation cages the birds had no view of the sky, but were exposed to the local magnetic field of the earth. The analysis of data from 404 nights in which birds showed migratory restlessness revealed a significant concentration of the mean directions in the southern sector of the cage. Moreover the birds showed a counterclockwise shift in the preferred direction from SW or SSW to S or SSE, corresponding with the directional shift in freeliving garden warbler migration. These results suggest that the changes in migratory direction occurring in this species are due, at least in part, to spontaneous endogenous changes in the preferred direction relative to external orienting cues, probably of the earth's magnetic field.

Keywords

Prefer Direction Migratory Direction Local Magnetic Field Flight Direction Photoperiodic Condition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bernis, F., Carro, C.: Los anillamientos de S.E.O. Ardeola9, 5–51 (1963)Google Scholar
  2. Berthold, P.: Relationships between migratoryy restlessness and migration distance in sixSylvia species. Ibis155, 594–599 (1973)Google Scholar
  3. Berthold, P., Gwinner, E., Klein, H.: Vergleichende Untersuchung der Jugendentwicklung eines ausgeprägten Zugvogels,Sylvia borin, und eines weniger ausgeprägten Zugvogels,S. atricapilla. Vogelwarte25, 297–331 (1970)Google Scholar
  4. Emlen, S.T.: Migration: orientation and navigation. In: Avian biology, Vol. 5 (eds. D.S. Farner, J.R. King), p. 129–219. New York, San Francisco, London: Academic Press 1975Google Scholar
  5. Groot, C.: On the orientation of young sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during their seaward migration out of lakes. Behaviour14, 198 (1965)Google Scholar
  6. Gwinner, E.: Circannuale Periodik als Grundlage des jahreszeitlichen Funktionswandels bei Zugvögeln. Untersuchungen am Fitis (Phylloscopus trochilus) und am Waldlaubsänger (Ph. sibilatrix). J. Ornithol.109, 70–95 (1968)Google Scholar
  7. Gwinner, E.: Orientierung. In: Grundriss der Vogelzugskunde (ed. E. Schüz). Berlin und Hamburg: Parey 1971Google Scholar
  8. Gwinner, E.: Endogenous timing factors in bird migration. In: Animal orientation and navigation (eds. S.R. Galler, K. Schmidt-Koenig, G.J. Jacobs, R.E. Belleville), pp. 321–338. Washington, D.C.: NASA 1972Google Scholar
  9. Gwinner, E.: Circannual rhythms in bird migration. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst.8, 381–405 (1977)Google Scholar
  10. Heckenroth, H.: Beobachtungen über die Rechtswendung des wegziehenden Weißstorchs am Golf von Iskenderon. Vogelwarte24, 246–262 (1968)Google Scholar
  11. Klein, H., Berthold, P., Gwinner, E.: Der Zug europäischer Garten- und Mönchsgrasmücken (Sylvia borin undS. atricapilla). Vogelwarte27, 73–134 (1973)Google Scholar
  12. Moreau, R.E.: The Palaearctic-African bird migration system. London and New York: Academic Press 1972Google Scholar
  13. Rabø1, J.: Displacement experiments with night-migrating passerines Z. Tierpsychol.30, 14–25 (1972)Google Scholar
  14. Sauer, E.G.F.: Die Sternorientierung nächtlich ziehender Grasmücken (Sylvia atricapilla, borin undcurruca). Z. Tierpsychol.14, 29–70 (1957)Google Scholar
  15. Schüz, E.: Vom Vogelzug. Frankfurt: Schöps 1952Google Scholar
  16. Schüz, E.: Vom Zug des Weißstorches im Raum Syrien bis Ägypten. Vogelwarte18, 5–13 (1955)Google Scholar
  17. Wallraff, H.G.: Können Grasmücken mit Hilfe des Sternhimmels navigieren? Z. Tierpsychol.17, 165–177 (1960a)Google Scholar
  18. Wallraff, H.G.: Does celestial navigation exist in animals? Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quant. Biol.25, 451–461 (1960b)Google Scholar
  19. Wallraff, H.G.: Selected aspects of migratory orientation in birds. Vogelwarte29 (Sonderheft), 64–76 (1977)Google Scholar
  20. Wiltschko, W.: Über den Einfluß statischer Magnetfelder auf die Zugorientierung der Rotkehlchen (Erithacus rubecula) Z. Tierpsychol.25, 535–558 (1968)Google Scholar
  21. Wiltschko, W.: Kompaßsysteme in der Orientierung von Zugvögeln. Inf. Org.2, (Akad. Wiss. u. Lit., Mainz) 93–140 (1973)Google Scholar
  22. Wiltschko, W.: Der Magnetkompaß der Gartengrasmücke (Sylvia borin). J. Ornithol.115, 1–7 (1974)Google Scholar
  23. Wiltschko, W., Gwinner, E.: Evidence for an innate magnetic compass in garden warblers. Naturwissenschaften61, 406 (1974)Google Scholar
  24. Wiltschko, W., Schmidt, K.H.: Direcciones preferenciales de migrantes nocturnos (Passeres) par Almeria. Ardeola20, 127–140 (1974)Google Scholar
  25. Wiltschko, W., Wiltschko, R.: The interaction of stars and magnetic field in the orientation system of night migrating birds. I. Autumn experiments with European warblers (Gen.Sylvia). Z. Tierpsychol.37, 337–355 (1975)Google Scholar
  26. Zink, G.: Der Zug europäischer Singvögel I, II. Möggingen: Vogelzug-Verlag 1973–1975Google Scholar
  27. Zink, G.: Richtungsänderungen auf dem Zug bei europäischen Singvögeln. Vogelwarte29 (Sonderheft) 44–54 (1977)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eberhard Gwinner
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Wiltschko
    • 2
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für VerhaltensphysiologieErling-AndechsGermany
  2. 2.Fachbereich Biologie (Zoologie) der Universität FrankfurtFrankfurt/MainGermany

Personalised recommendations