Colloid and Polymer Science

, Volume 270, Issue 2, pp 183–193 | Cite as

The use of dilute solution viscometry to characterize the network properties of carbopol microgels

  • J. O. Carnali
  • M. S. Naser
Original Contributions


We used dilute solution viscometry, specifically, measurements of intrinsic viscosity and overlap concentration to characterize two members of the carbopol family, carbopols 940 and 941. These measured quantities were then used to calculate the swollen-to-dry volume ratios for both resins over a range of ionic strengths. The variation in this ratio is representative of the swelling equilibria of the micronetwork and is modeled using standard network theory with modifications for non-Gaussian chain statistics and for fixed charges on the chains. By fitting to experimental data, the cross-link density is determined as 1450 monomer units between cross-link sites for carbopol 940 and 3300 units for carbopol 941. The shear modulus of the microgel domain is then predicted from the swelling data and found to be an order of magnitude greater than the elastic modulus measured on concentrated carbopol dispersions. We argue that this discrepancy is due to a large number of defects which reduce the cycle rank of the network. Current microgel technology specifies that their rheological behavior can be predicted once the domain cross-link density is known. Simple dilute solution viscometry appears capable of providing this prerequisite.

Key words

Microgels carbopol polyelectrolytes networks swelling 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Brown HP: U.S. Patent 2,798,053Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goodrich BF: Technical LiteratureGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Taylor NW, Bagley EB (1974) J Appl Polym Sci 18:2747Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fischer WH, Bauer WH, Wiberley SE (1961) Trans Soc Rheol 5:221Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Testa B, Etter J-Cl (1973) Pharm Acta Helv 6/7:378Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Taylor NW, Bagley EB (1977) J Appl Polym Sci 21:113Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Taylor NW, Bagley EB (1975) J Polym Sci, Polym Phys Ed 13:1133Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Steeneken PAM (1989) Carbohydrate Polymers 11:23Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Taylor NW, Gordon SH (1982) J Appl Polym Sci 27:4377Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Taylor NW, Bagley EB (1977) J Appl Polym Sci 21:1607Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ketz Jr RJ, Prud'homme RK, Graessley WW (1988) Rheol Acta 27:531Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wolfe MS, Scopazzi C (1989) J Colloid Interface Sci 133:265Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lange H (1986) Colloid Polym Sci 264:488Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holtus G, Borchard W (1989) Colloid Polym Sci 267:1133Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bohme G, Stenger M (1990) J Rheol 34:415Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Antonietti M, Bremser W, Schmidt M (1990) Macromolecules 23:3796Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Flory PJ (1953) Principles of polymer chemistry. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Treloar LRG (1958) The physics of rubber elasticity Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hasa J, Ilavsky M, Dusek K (1975) J Polym Sci: Polym Phys Ed 13:253Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Katchalsky A, Michaeli I (1955) J Polym Sci 15:69Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vasheghani-Farahani E, Vera JH, Cooper DG, Weber ME (1990) Ind Eng Chem Res 29:554Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Manning GS (1974) In: Selegny E (ed) Polyelectrolytes. Reidel Publishing Co., DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Doi M, Edwards SF (1986) In: The theory of polymer dynamics. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carnali JO, Naser MS, unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stochkmayer WH, Fixman M (1963) J Polym Sci, Part C 1:137Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barnes HA, Hutton JF, Walters K (1989) in: An introduction to rheology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ferry JD (1989) In: Viscoelastic properties of polymers. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    James HM, Guth E (1947) J Chem Phys 15:669Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Flory PJ (1977) J Chem Phys 66:5720Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mark JE, Erman B (1988) In: Rubbetlike elasticity a molecular primer. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Candau S, Bastide J, Delsanti M (1982) Adv PolySci 44:27Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Scanlan J (1960) J Polym Sci 43:501Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Flory PJ (1982) Macromolecules 15:99Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. O. Carnali
    • 1
  • M. S. Naser
    • 1
  1. 1.Unilever Research US, IncEdgewaterUSA

Personalised recommendations