Astrophysics and Space Science

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 419–436

The cascading of cosmic-ray nuclei in various media

  • Phyllis S. Freier
  • C. J. Waddington
Article

Abstract

More than a thousand interactions of primary heavy nuclei of the cosmic radiation with charge ≥10 and energy >1 GeV nucleon−1 in nuclear emulsion have been studied with emphasis on how the primary nucleus fragments. It has been determined that the cases of multiple successive fragmentations that have been observed do not occur more frequently than expected. The fragmentation ofZ>20 nuclei does depend on the target nucleus to some extent so it is important to try to separate the interactions in emulsion by theirNh (number of evaporation prongs). The fragmentation of816O at 2.1 GeV nucleon−1 measured at the Bevalac shows a similar dependence on target nucleus. By using data from these new interactions combined with published data we have simulated on a computer nuclear cascades in both emulsion and air. Results on these cascades are given for both primary silicon and primary iron nuclei. These results are used to discuss the fluctuations expected in extensive air showers produced by heavy primary nuclei.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersson, B., Otterlund, I., and Kristiansson, K.: 1966,Arkiv. Fysik 31, 527.Google Scholar
  2. Badhwar, G. D., Durgaprasad, N., and Vijayalakshmi, B.: 1965,Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 61, 374.Google Scholar
  3. Cleghorn, T.F., Freier, P. S., and Waddington, C. J.: 1968,Can. J. Phys. 46, 5572.Google Scholar
  4. Dixon, H. E., Turver, K. E., and Waddington, C. J.: 1974,Proc. Roy. Soc. London,A339, 157.Google Scholar
  5. Dixon, H. E., Earnshaw, J. C., Hook, J. R., Smith, G. J., and Turver, K. E.: 1973,Proc. Denver Cosmic Rays Conf. 4, p. 2473.Google Scholar
  6. Fowler, P. H., Hillier, R. R., and Waddington, C. J.: 1957,Phil. Mag. 2, 293.Google Scholar
  7. Friedlander, E., and Spirchez, M.: 1961,Nucl. Sci. Abstr. 15, 3457.Google Scholar
  8. Friedlander, M. W., Neelakantan, R. A., Tokunaga, S., Stevenson, G. R., and Waddington, C. J.: 1963,Phil. Mag. 8, 1691.Google Scholar
  9. Hillier, R. R. and Waddington, C. J.: 1957,Nuovo Cimento 6, 403.Google Scholar
  10. Judek, B.: 1968,Can. J. Phys. 46, 343.Google Scholar
  11. Judek, B.: 1972,Can. J. Phys. 50, 2082.Google Scholar
  12. Lindstrom, P. J., Greiner, D. E., Heckman, H. H., Cork, B., and Bieser, F. S.: 1973, paper presented atSymposium on Isotopic Composition, Durham, New Hampshire, also LBL-3650 preprint.Google Scholar
  13. Milone, A.: 1954,Suppl. Nuovo Cimento 12, 354.Google Scholar
  14. Rajopadhye, V. Y. and Waddington, C. J.: 1958,Phil. Mag. 3, 19.Google Scholar
  15. Tokunaga, S., Ishii, T., and Nishikawa, K.: 1957,Nuovo Cimento 5, 517.Google Scholar
  16. Waddington, C. J.: 1960,Phil. Mag. 5, 311.Google Scholar
  17. Yagoda, H.: 1956,Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II64.Google Scholar
  18. Yagoda. H.: 1958,Geophys. Res. Papers, No. 50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phyllis S. Freier
    • 1
  • C. J. Waddington
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations