Marine Biology

, Volume 99, Issue 1, pp 93–100

Allozyme variation in populations of the dog-whelkNucella lapillus (Prosobranchia: Muricacea) from the South West peninsula of England

  • A. J. Day
  • B. L. Bayne
Article

Abstract

Four populations of the predatory gastropodNucella lapillus were sampled at sites around the South West Peninsula of England in 1986, and analysed for allozyme variation at 18 enzyme loci. Two of these loci, αGpd-1 andHk-1, exhibited sex-specific phenotypes. An absolute locus association was observed between two other loci,Mdh-1 andEst-3. This association was only found at one site (Prawle), and it is suggested that the presence of chromosomal polymorphisms could explain this finding. As a measure of overall similarity, Nei's genetic identity statistic,I, was calculated; the mean for all populations was 0.989, with values ranging from 0.981 to 0.997. Although similar on this gross level, considerable interpopulation variation was evident. Observed mean heterozygosity (per locus) ranged from 0.043 to 0.104 (mean 0.074). Populations differed also in the loci at which significant heterozygote deficits were seen (of the seven deficits recorded only those at thePep-1 locus were consistent across sites) and in the presence of rare alleles undetected elsewhere. The variation observed showed no correlation to shell morphology or geographical distance and confirmed the conclusion that species of the genusNucella show considerable disjunct variation.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Ahmad, M., Skibinski, D. O. F., Beardmore, J. A. (1977). An estimate of the amount of genetic variation in the common musselMytilus edulis. Biochem. Genet. 15: 833–846Google Scholar
  2. Avise, J. C. (1976). Genetic differentiation during speciation. In: Ayala, F. J. (ed.) Molecular evolution. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, p. 106–122Google Scholar
  3. Ayala, F. J. (1975). Genetic differentiation during the speciation process. Evolutionary Biol. 8: 1–78Google Scholar
  4. Ballantine, W. J. (1961). A biologically-defined exposure scale for the comparative description of rocky shores. Fld Stud. 1: 1–19Google Scholar
  5. Bantock, C. R., Cockayne, W. C. (1976). Chromosomal polymorphism inNucella lapillus. Heredity, Lond. 34: 231–245Google Scholar
  6. Beaumont, A. R., Day, T. R., Gade, G. (1980). Genetic variation at the octopine dehydrogenase locus in the adductor muscle ofCerastoderma edule (L.) and six other bivalve species. Mar. Biol. Lett. 1: 137–148Google Scholar
  7. Berger, E. M. (1973). Gene-enzyme variation in three sympatric species ofLittorina. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 145: 83–90Google Scholar
  8. Berger, E. M. (1977). Gene-enzyme variation in three sympatric species ofLittorina, II. The Roscoff population, with a note on the origin of North AmericanL. littorea. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 153: 255–264Google Scholar
  9. Berry, R. J. (1983). Polymorphic shell-banding in the dog whelkNucella lapillus (Mollusca). J. Zool., Lond. 200: 455–470Google Scholar
  10. Berry, R. J., Crothers, J. H. (1968). Stabilizing selection in the dog whelk (Nucella lapillus). J. Zool., Lond. 155: 5–17Google Scholar
  11. Berry, R. J., Crothers, J. H. (1970). Genotypic stability and physiological tolerance in the dog-whelk (Nucella lapillus). J. Zool., Lond. 162: 293–302Google Scholar
  12. Berry, R. J., Crothers, J. H. (1974). Visible variation in the dog-whelk,Nucella lapillus. J. Zool., Lond. 174: 123–148Google Scholar
  13. Campbell, C. A. (1978). Genetic divergence between populations ofT. lamellosa (Gmelin). In: Battaglia, B., Beardmore, J. A. (eds.) Marine organisms: genetics, ecology and evolution. Plenum Press, New York, p. 157–170Google Scholar
  14. Crothers, J. H. (1983). Variation in dog whelk shells in relation to wave action and crab predation. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 20: 85–102Google Scholar
  15. Fretter, V., Graham, A. (1962). British prosobranch molluscs. Their functional anatomy and ecology. Ray Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Gooch, J. L., Smith, B. S., Knupp, D. (1972). Regional survey of gene frequencies in the mud snail,Nassarius obsoletus. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 142: 36–48Google Scholar
  17. Harris, H., Hopkinson, D. A. (1978). Handbook of enzyme electrophoresis in human genetics. North-Holland, Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  18. Heller, J. (1975). The taxonomy of some BritishLittorina species with notes on their reproduction (Mollusca: Prosobranchia). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 56: 131–151Google Scholar
  19. Hughes, R. N. (1972). Annual production of two Nova Scotian populations ofNucella lapillus (L.). Oecologia 8: 356–370Google Scholar
  20. Janson, K. (1983). Selection and migration in two distinct phenotypes ofLittorina saxatilis in Sweden. Oecologia 59: 58–61Google Scholar
  21. Janson, K. (1985). Genetic and morphological variation within and between populations ofLittorina angulifera from Florida. Ophelia 24: 125–134Google Scholar
  22. Janson, K., Ward, R. D. (1984). Microgeographic variation in allozyme and shell characters inLittorina saxatilis Olivi. (Prosobranchia: Littorinidae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 22: 289–307Google Scholar
  23. Kincaid, T. (1957). Local races and clines in the marine gastropod,Thais lamellosa Gmelin. A population study. Calliostoma Press, Seattle, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  24. Kitching, J. A. (1976). Distribution and changes in shell form ofThais spp. (Gastropoda) near Bamfield, B.C. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 23: 109–126Google Scholar
  25. Kool, S. P. (1986). Systematic revision of thaidid genera based on anatomy. Bull. Am. malac. Un. 4: p. 110Google Scholar
  26. Lewontin, R. C. (1974). The genetic basis of evolutionary change. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Mastro, E., Chow, V., Hedgecock, D. (1982).Littorina scrutalata, Littorina plena. Sibling species status of two prosobranch gastropod species confirmed by electrophoresis. Veliger 24: 239–246Google Scholar
  28. Morris, S. (1979). Genetic variation in the genusLittorina. Ph.D. dissertation. University of WalesGoogle Scholar
  29. Nei, M. (1972). Genetic distance between populations. Am Nat. 106: 282–292Google Scholar
  30. Page, C. (1985). Investigation of the cytogenetics of marine and terrestrial gastropods. Ph. D. disseration. Polytechnic of North LondonGoogle Scholar
  31. Palmer, A. R. (1984). Species cohesiveness and genetic control of shell colour and form inThais emarginata (Prosobranchia, Muricacea): preliminary results. Malacologia 25: 477–491Google Scholar
  32. Palmer, A. R. (1985). Genetic basis of shell variation inThais emarginata (Prosobranchia, Muricacea). 1. Banding in populations from Vancouver Island. Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole 169: 638–651Google Scholar
  33. Pamilo, P., Varvio-Aho, S., (1984). Testing genotype frequencies and heterozygosities. Mar. Biol. 79: 99–100Google Scholar
  34. Schaal, B. A., Anderson, W. W. (1974). An outline of techniques for starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes from the American oysterCrassostrea virginica Gmelin. Tech. Rep. Ser. Ga mar. Sci. Cent. Savannah, Ga 74: 1–17Google Scholar
  35. Scheffe, H. (1959). The analysis of variance. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Shaw, C. R., Prasad, R. (1970). Starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes — a compilation of recipes. Biochem. Genet 4: 297–320Google Scholar
  37. Snyder, T. P., Gooch, J. L. (1973). Genetic differentiation inLittorina saxatilis (Gastropoda). Mar. Biol. 22: 177–182Google Scholar
  38. Spight, T. M. (1973). Ontogeny, environment and shape of a marine snail,Thais lamellosa Gmelin. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 13: 215–228Google Scholar
  39. Staiger, H. (1957). Genetical and morphological variation inPurpura lapillus with respect to local and regional differentiation of population groups. Année biol. 33: 251–258Google Scholar
  40. Stern, E. M. (1975). The chromosomes ofViviparus subpurpureus (Say) (Streptoneura, Viviparidae). Malac. Rev. 13: 107–108Google Scholar
  41. Struhsaker, J. W. (1967). Selection mechanisms associated with intraspecific shell variation inLittorina picta. Evolution 22: 459–480Google Scholar
  42. Ward, R. D., Warwick, T. (1980). Genetic differentiation in the molluscan speciesLittorina rudis andLittorina arcana (Prosobranchia, Littorinidae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 14: 417–428Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Day
    • 1
  • B. L. Bayne
    • 1
  1. 1.Plymouth Marine LaboratoryPlymouthEngland

Personalised recommendations