Astrophysics and Space Science

, Volume 243, Issue 1, pp 187–193 | Cite as

An essay on terminology, myths,- and known facts: Solar transient-flare-CME-driver gas-piston-BDE-magnetic cloud-shock wave-geomagnetic storm

  • Rainer Schwenn
Satellite Data From Ulysses, Yohkoh & Other Spacecrafts


In the field of solar-terrestrial relations a clear and unique terminology is needed in order to abolish and avoid unnecessary confusion between the scientists from several involved disciplines. For example, the widely used abbreviationCME (for coronal mass ejection) has turned out to be somewhat misleading. Early on it had been known that other than coronal material is often involved in such events. The discoverers observed transient events of mass ejections from the sun, which could be observed in the corona owing to the newly available coronagraphs. This article is meant to clarify the terminology, with emphasis on giving credit to the original discoverers and the terms they introduced. With this aim in mind I suggest some minor modifications of the terminology.

Key words

solar-terrestrial coronal mass ejection coronagraphs 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Boischot, A.: 1957,Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci., Paris244, 1326.Google Scholar
  2. Borrini, G., Gosling, J.T., Bame, S.J., and Feldman, W.C.: 1982,J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4365.Google Scholar
  3. Burlaga, L.F., Ness, N.F., Mariani, F., Bavassano, B., Villante, U., Rosenbauer, H., Schwenn, R., and Harvey, J.: 1978,J. Geophys. Res. 83, 5167.Google Scholar
  4. Burlaga, L.F., Klein, L., Sheeley, N.R., Michels, D.J., Howard, R.A., Koomen, M.J., Schwenn, R., and Rosenbauer, H.: 1982,Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 1317.Google Scholar
  5. Gold, T.: 1955,Gas Dynamics of Cosmic Clouds, North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 103.Google Scholar
  6. Gold, T.: 1959,J. Geophys. Res. 64, 1665.Google Scholar
  7. Gosling, J.T., Hildner, E., MacQueen, R.M., Munro, R.H., Poland, A.I., and Ross, C.L.: 1974,J. Geophys. Res.,79, 4581.Google Scholar
  8. Gosling, J.T., Hildner, E., MacQueen, R.M., Munro, R.H., Poland, A.I., and Ross, C.L.: 1975,solar Phys.,40, 439.Google Scholar
  9. Gosling, J.T.: 1976, D.J. Williams (ed.), inPhysics of Solar Planetary Environments 1, Boulder, published by AGU, p. 286.Google Scholar
  10. Gosling, J.T.: 1990,Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes, Geophysical Monograph 58, AGU Washington, 343.Google Scholar
  11. Gosling, J.T.: 1993,J. Geophys. Res.,98, 18937.Google Scholar
  12. Harrison, R.A., Waggett, P.W., Bentley, R.D., Phillips, K.J.H., Bruner, M., Dryer, M., and Simnett, G.M.: 1985,Solar Phys.,97, 387.Google Scholar
  13. Hildner, E., Gosling, J.T., MacQueen, P.M., Munro, R.H., Poland, A.I., Ross, C.L.: 1975,Solar Phys.,42, 163.Google Scholar
  14. Hirshberg, J., Alksne, A., Colburn, D.S., Bame, S.J., and Hundhausen A.J.: 1970,J. Geophys. Res.,75, 1.Google Scholar
  15. Hundhausen, A.J., Sawyer, C.B., House, L.L., Illing, R.M.E., and Wagner, W.J.: 1984,J. Geophys. Res.,89, 2639.Google Scholar
  16. Illing, R.M.E. and Hundhausen, A.J.: 1985,J. Geophys. Res.,90, 275.Google Scholar
  17. Kahler, S.W.: 1992,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.,30, 113.Google Scholar
  18. MacQueen, R.M.: 1980,Phil. Trans. R. Soc., London,297, 605.Google Scholar
  19. McComas, D.J., Gosling, J.T., Winterhalter, D., and Smith, E.J.: 1987,J. Geophys. Res.,93, 2519.Google Scholar
  20. Meadows, A.J.: 1970,Early Solar Physics, Pergamon Press, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  21. Morrison, P.: 1954,Phys. Rev.,95, 641.Google Scholar
  22. Schwenn, R., Rosenbauer, H., Muser, K.-H.: 1980,Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 201.Google Scholar
  23. Schwenn, R.: 1986,Space Sci. Rev.,44, 139.Google Scholar
  24. Sheeley, Jr., N.R., Michels, D.J., Howard, R.A., Koomen, M.J.: 1981,EOS Trans. AGU,62, 153.Google Scholar
  25. Sheeley Jr., N.R., Howard, R.A., Koomen, M.J., Michels, D.J., Schwenn, R., Muser, K.H., and Rosenbauer, H.: 1985a,J. Geophys. Res.,90, 163.Google Scholar
  26. Sonett, C.P., Colburn, D.S., Davis, L., Smith, E.J., and Coleman, P.J.: 1964,Phys. Rev. Letters,13, 153.Google Scholar
  27. Tousey, R.: 1973,Space Res.,13, 713.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rainer Schwenn
    • 1
  1. 1.Max Planck Institut fr AeronomieKatlenburg-LindauGermany

Personalised recommendations