Advertisement

Earth, Moon, and Planets

, Volume 69, Issue 3, pp 285–310 | Cite as

Evidence of vertical and horizontal motions on Venus: Maxwell Montes

  • V. Ansan
  • P. Vergely
Article

Abstract

Based on full-resolution Magellan radar images, the detailed structural analysis of central Ishtar Terra (Venus) provides new insight to the understanding of the Venusian tectonics. Ishtar Terra, centered on 65° N latitude and 0° E longitude includes a high plateau. Lakshmi Planum, surrounded by highlands, the most important being Maxwell Montes to the East. Structural analysis has been performed with classical remote-sensing methods. Folds and faults identified on radar images were reported on structural map. Their type and distribution allowed to define the style of the crustal deformation and the context in which these structures formed. This analysis shows that Lakshmi Planum formed under a crustal stretching associated with a volcanic activity. This area then became a relatively steady platform, throughout the formation of Maxwell Montes mountain belt. Maxwell Montes is characterized by a series of NNW-SSE trending thrust faults dipping to the East, formed during a WSW-ESE horizontal shortening. In its NW quarter, the mountain belt shows a disturbed deformation controlled by pre-existing grabens and old vertical crustal fault zone. The deformation of this area is characterized by a shortening of cover above a flat detachment zone, with a progressive accommodation to the southwest. All these tectonic structures show evidence of horizontal and vertical crustal movements on Venus, with subsidence, mountain belt raise, West regional overthrusting of this mountain belt, and regional shear zone.

Keywords

Fault Zone Shear Zone Thrust Fault Crustal Movement Crustal Deformation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexandrov, Y. N., Zakharov, A. I., Krymov, A. A., Kadnichansky, S. A., Ledovshaya, L. S., Ostrovskv, M. V., Petrov, G. M., Rzhiga, O. N., Sidorenko, V. P., and Tyuflin, Y. S.: 1985,Compilation of Photomaps of the Venus Surface from Venera 15 and 16 Radar Data. Translated from Geodeziia i Kartografiia, pp. 41–48.Google Scholar
  2. Ansan, V.: 1993, ‘Interprétations Géologiques et Structurales de Vé;us é Partir des Images Radar Venera 15–16 et Magellan’, (Structural and Geologic Interpretations of Venus from Venera 15/16 and Magellan Radar Images), PhD Thesis, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay, France, 270 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Ansan. V., Vergely, P., and Masson, P.: 1994, ‘Tectonic Interpretations of Central Ishtar Terra (Venus) from Venera 15/16 and Magellan Full-Resolution Radar Images’,Planet. Space Sci. 42, 239–261.Google Scholar
  4. Arkani-Hamed, J.: 1993, ‘On Tectonics of Venus’,PEPI,76, 75–96.Google Scholar
  5. Arnaud, N. O., Vidal, P., Tapponnier, P., Matte, P., and Deng, W. M.: 1992, ‘The High K2O Volcanism of Northwestern Tibet: Geochemistry and Tectonic Implications’,Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 111, 351–367.Google Scholar
  6. Avdueyskiy, V. S., Marov, M. Y., Kulekov, Y. N., Schari, V. P., Gorbacheyskiy, A. Y., Uspenskiy, G. R., and Cheremukhma, Z. P.: 1993, in D. M. Hunten, L. Colin, T. M. Donahue and V. I. Moroz (eds.),Structure and Parameters of the Venus Atmosphere According to Venera Probe, 1993, in Venus, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 280–298.Google Scholar
  7. Barsukov, V. L., Basileysky, A. T., Burba, G. A., Bobina, N. N., Kryuchkov, V. P., Kuzmin, R. O., Nikolaeva, O. V., Pronin, A. A., Pronin, L. B., Ronca, L. B., Chernaya, I. M., Shaankina, V. P., Garanin, A. V., Kushky, E. R., Markov, M. S., Sukhanov, A, L., Kotelnikov, V. M., Rzhiga, O. N., Perov, G. M., Alexandrov, Y. N., Siderenko, A. I., Bogomolov, A. F., Skrypnik, G. I., Bergman, M. Y., Kudrin, L. V., Bokshtein, I. M., Kronrod, M. A., Chochia, P. A., Tyuflin, Y. S., Kadnichansky, S. A., and Akim, E. I.: 1986, ‘The Geology and Geomorphology of the Venus Surface as Revealed by the Radar Images obtained by Veneras 15 and 16’,J. Geophys. Res. 91(B4), D378–D398.Google Scholar
  8. Basileysky, A. T.: 1986, ‘Structure of Central and Eastern Areas of Ishtar Terra and some Problems of Venusian Tectonics’,Geotectonics 20, 282–288.Google Scholar
  9. Basileysky, A. T., Pronin, A., Ronca, B., Kryuchkov, P., Sukhanov, A. L., and Markov, M. S.: 1986, ‘Styles of Tectonic Deformation on Venus: Analysis of Venera 15 and 16 Data’,Lunar Planet. Sci. Proc. 16,J. Geophys. Res. 91, D378–D398.Google Scholar
  10. Basileysky, A. T. and Ivanov, B. A.: 1990, ‘Cleopatra Crater on Venus: Venera 15/16 Data and Impact/Volcanic Origin Controversy’,Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 175–178.Google Scholar
  11. Bindschadler, D. L. and Parmentier, E. M.: 1990, ‘Mantle Flow Tectonics: The Influence of Ductile Lower Crust and Implications for the Formation of Topographic Uplands on Venus’,J. Geophys. Res. 95, 21329–21341.Google Scholar
  12. Blondel. Ph., 1992, ‘Traitement et interprétation des données radar: Applications é l'etude de la surface de Vénus’, (Processing and interpretation of radar data: Applications to the study of the surface of Venus), Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. Paris-VII Jussieu, France, 327 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Campbell, D. B., Head, J. W., Harmon J. K., and Hine, A. A.: 1983, ‘Venus: Identification of Banded Terrain in the Mountains of Ishtar Terra’,Science 221, 611–646.Google Scholar
  14. Campbell, B. A. and Campbell, D. B.: 1992, ‘Analysis of Volcanic Surface Morphology on Venus from Comparison of Arecibo, Magellan and Terrestrial Airborne Radar Data’,J. Geophys. Res. 97(E10), 16223–16311.Google Scholar
  15. Crumpler, L. S., Head, J. W., and Campbell, D. B.: 1986, ‘Orogenic Belts on Venus’,Geology 14, 1031–1034.Google Scholar
  16. England, P. and Houseman, G.: 1989, ‘Extension during Continental Convergence with Application to the Tibetan Plateau’,J. Geophys. Res. 94, 17561–17579.Google Scholar
  17. Ford, P. G. and Pettengill, G. H.: 1983, ‘Venus: Global Surface Radio-Emissivity’,Science 220, 1379–1381.Google Scholar
  18. Ford, J. P., Blom, R. G., Crisp, J. A., Elachi, C., Farr, T. G., Saunders, R. S., Theilig, E. E., Wall, S, D., and Yewell, S. B.: 1989,Spaceborne Radar Observation: A Guide for Magellan Radar Image Analysis, JPL Publication 89-41, 125 p.Google Scholar
  19. Ford, P. G. and Pettengill, G. H.P: 1992, ‘Venus Topography and Kilometer-Scale Slopes’,J. Geophys. Res. 97, 13,103–13,114.Google Scholar
  20. Ford, J. P, Plaut, J. J,, Weitz, C. M., Farr, T. G., Senske, D. A., Stofan, E. R., Michaels, G., and Parken, T. J.: 1993,Guide to Magellan image interpretation, JPL Publication 93-24, 148 p.Google Scholar
  21. Froidevaux, C., and Ricard, Y.: 1987, ‘Tectonic Evolution of High Plateaus’,Tectonophysics 134, 227–238.Google Scholar
  22. Grimm, R. E. and Phillips, R. I.: 1990, ‘Tectonics of Lakshmi Planum. Venus: Tests for Magellan’,Geophys. Res. Ltrs. 17, 1349–1352.Google Scholar
  23. Head, J. W., Crumpler, L. S., Aubele, J. C., Guest, J. E., and Saunders R. S.: 1992, ‘Venus Volcanism: Classification of Volcanic Features and Structures, Associations and Global Distribution from Magellan Data’,J. Geophys. Res. 97, 13153–13197.Google Scholar
  24. Ivanov, B. A., Nemchinov, I. V., Svetsov, V. A., Provalov, A. A., Khazins, V. M., and Phillips, R. J.: 1992, ‘Impact Cratering on Venus’,J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16167–16181.Google Scholar
  25. Kaula, W. M., Bindschadler, D. L., Grimm, R. E., Hansen, V. L., Roberts, K. M., and Smrekar, S. E.: 1992, ‘Styles of Deformation in Ishtar Terra and their Implications’,J. Geophys. Res. 97(E10), 16085–16120.Google Scholar
  26. Klose, K. B., Wood, J. A., and Hashimoto, A.: 1992, ‘Mineral Equilibria and High Radar Reflectivity of Venus Mountain Tops’,J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16353–16369.Google Scholar
  27. Krasnopolsky, V. A. and Parshev, V. A.: 1983, in D. M. Hunten, L. Colin. T. M. Donahue. and V. I. Moroz (eds.),Composition of Venus Atmosphere, Venus, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 431–458.Google Scholar
  28. Kusznick, N. J. and Park, R. G.: 1986, in M. P. Coward, J. F. Dewey and P. L. Hancock (eds.),The Extensional Strength of the Continental Lithosphere: Its Dependance on Geothermal Gradient and Crustal Composition and Thickness, Continental Extensional Tectonics.Spec. Pub. Geol. Soc. London 28, 35–52.Google Scholar
  29. McKenzie, D. and Bickle, J. M.: 1988, ‘The Volume and Composition of Melt Generated by Extension of the Lithosphere’,J. Petrol. 29, 625–679.Google Scholar
  30. McKenzie, D., McKenzie, J. M., and Saunders, R. S.: 1992, ‘Dike Emplacement on Venus and on Earth’,J. Geophys. Res. 97(E10), 15977–15990.Google Scholar
  31. Molnar, P., England, P., and Martinod, J.: 1993, ‘Mantle Dynamics, Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the Indian Monsoon’,Reviews Geophysics 31, 357–396.Google Scholar
  32. Pettengill, G. H., Ford, P. G., and Chapman, B. D.: 1988, ‘Venus Surface Electrical Properties’,J. Geophys. Res. 83, 14881–14892.Google Scholar
  33. Phillips, R. J.: 1990, ‘Convection-Driven Tectonics on Venus’,J. Geophys. Res. 95, 1301–1316.Google Scholar
  34. Plaut, J. J. and Aryidson, R. E.: 1992, ‘Comparison of Goldstone and Magellan Radar Data in the Equatorial Plains of Venus’,J. Geophys. Res. 97(E10), 16,279–16,292.Google Scholar
  35. Plaut, J. J., Aryidson, R. E., and Jurgens, R. F.: 1990, ‘Radar Characteristics of the Equatorial Plains of Venus from Goldstone Observations: Implications to Interpretation of Magellan Data’,Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1357–1360.Google Scholar
  36. Pronin, A. A.: 1986, ‘The Structure of Lakshmi Planum, an Indication of Horizontal Asthenospheric Flow on Venus’,Geotectonics 20, 271–281.Google Scholar
  37. Roberts, K. M. and Head, J. W.: 1990, ‘Western Ishtar Terra and Lakshmi Planum, Venus: Models of Formation and Evolution’,Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1341–1344.Google Scholar
  38. Saunders, R. S., Spear, A, J., Allin, P. C., Austin, R. S., Berman, R. L., Chandlee, R. C., Clark, J., deCharon, A. V., de Jong, E. M., Gunn, D. J., Hensley, S., Johnson, W. T. K., Kirby, C. E., Leung, K. S., Lyons, D. T., Michaels, G. A., Miller, J., Morris, R. B., Morrison, A. D., Piereson, R. G., Scott, J. F., Shaffer, S. J., Slonski, J. P., Stofan, E. R., Thompson, T. W., and Wall, S. D.: 1992, ‘Magellan Mission Summary’,J. Geophys. Res. 97(E8), 13,067–13,090.Google Scholar
  39. Schaber, G. G., Strom, R. G., Moore, H. J., Soderblom, L. A., Kirk, R. L., Chadwick, D. J., Dawson, D. D., Gaddis, L. R., Boyce, J. M., and Russel, J.: 1992, ‘Geology and Distribution of Impact Craters on Venus: What are They Telling Us?’,J. Geophys. Res. 97(E8), 13,257–13,302.Google Scholar
  40. Schubert, G.: 1983, in D. M. Hunten, L. Colin, T. M. Donahue and V. I. Moroz (eds.),General Circulation and the Dynamical State of the Venus Atmosphere, Venus, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 681–690.Google Scholar
  41. Senske, D. A., Head, J. W., Stofan, E. R., and Campbell, D. B.: 1991, ‘Geology and Structure of Beta Regio, Venus: Results from Arecibo Radar Imaging’,Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1159–1162.Google Scholar
  42. Smrekar, S. E. and Phillips, R. J.: 1988, ‘Gravity-Driven Deformation of the Crust of Venus’,Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 693–696.Google Scholar
  43. Smrekar, S. E. and Solomon, S. C.: 1992, ‘Gravitational Spreading of High Terrain in Ishtar Terra, Venus’,J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16121–16118.Google Scholar
  44. Solomon, S. C., Head, J. W., Kaula. W. M., McKenzie, D., Parsons, B., Phillips, R. J., Schubert, G., and Talwani, M.: 1991, ‘Venus Tectonics: Initial Analysis from Magellan’,Science 252, 297–312.Google Scholar
  45. Solomon, S. C., Smrekar, S. E., Bindschadler, D. L., Grimm, R. E., Kaula, W. M., McGill, G. E., Phillips, R. J., Saunders, R. S., Schubert, G., Squyres, S. W., and Stofan, E. R.: 1992, ‘Venus Tectonics: An Overview of Magellan Observations’,J. Geophys. Res. 97(E8), 13,199–13,255.Google Scholar
  46. Suppe. J. and Connors, C.: 1992, ‘Critical Taper Wedge Mechanics of Fold-and-Thrust Belts on Venus: Initial Results from Magellan’,J. Geophys. Res. 97, 13,545–13,561.Google Scholar
  47. Turner, S., Hawkesworth, C., Liu, J., Roggers, N., Kelley, S., and van Calsteren, P.: 1993, ‘Timing of Tibetan Uplift Constrained by Analysis of Volcanic Rocks’,Nature 364, 50–51.Google Scholar
  48. Vorder Bruegge, R. W. and Head, J. W.: 1989, ‘Fortuna Tessera, Venus: Evidence of Horizontal Convergence and Crustal Thickening’,Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 699–702.Google Scholar
  49. Vorder Bruegge, R. W. and Head, J. W.: 1991, ‘Processes of Formation and Evolution of Mountain Belts on Venus’,Geology 19, 885–888.Google Scholar
  50. Zuber, M. T.: 1987, ‘Constraints on the Lithospheric Structure of Venus from Mechanical Models and Tectonic Surface Features’,J. Geophys. Res. 92, E541-E551.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Ansan
    • 1
  • P. Vergely
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre National d'Etudes SpatialesDivision Instrumentation RadarToulouse cedexFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Géologie Dynamique de la Terre et des planèts, Bât. 509Université. Paris-SudOrsay cedexFrance

Personalised recommendations