Ultraviolet spectrograms of a large number of faint stars up to 13m were obtained in the wavelengths 2000–5000 Å by means of the space observatory ‘Orion-2’ installed in the spaceship ‘Soyuz-13’ with two spacemen on board. The paper deals with a description of the operation modes of this observatory, the designs and basic schemes of the scientific and auxiliary device and the method of combining the work of the flight engineer and the automation system of the observatory itself.
It also treats of the combination of the particular parts of ‘Orion-2’ observatory on board the spaceship and the measures taken to provide for its normal functioning in terms of the space flight.
A detailed description is given of the optical, electric and mechanical schemes of the devices-meniscus telescope with an objective prism, stellar diffraction spectrographs, single-coordinate and two-coordinate stellar and solar transducers, control panel, control systems, etc. The paper also provides the functional scheme of astronavigation, six-wheel stabilization, the design of mounting (assembling) the stabilized platform carrying the telescopes and the drives used in it.
Problems relating to the observation program in orbit, the ballistic provision of initial data, and control of the operation of the observatory are also dealt with. In addition, the paper carries information of the photomaterials used, the methods of their energy calibration, standardization and the like. Matters of pre-start tests of apparatus, the preparation of the spacemen for conducting astronomical observations with the given devices, etc. are likewise dwelt on. The paper ends with a brief survey of the results obtained and the elaboration of the observed material.