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Increased urinary excretion of toxic hydrazino metabolites of isoniazid by slow acetylators. Effect of a slow-release preparation of isoniazid

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To test the hypothesis that slow acetylators, who may have a greater risk of developing isoniazid hepatitis than rapid acetylators, are exposed to more acetylhydrazine and hydrazine, two toxic metabolites of isoniazid, the urinary excretion of hydrazino metabolites of isoniazid was measured following the ingestion of 300 mg isoniazid.

Slow acetylators (n=7) excreted significantly more isoniazid (32.4 vs 9.2% dose), acetylhydrazine (3.1 vs 1.6% dose), and hydrazine (1.0 vs 0.4% dose) in 24 h than rapid acetylators (n=5), whereas the excretion of acetylisoniazid and diacetylhydrazine was significantly lower. As the acetylation (i.e. detoxification) of acetylhydrazine is inhibited in the presence of high concentrations of isoniazid, a study was also made of the effect of a slow-release preparation that results in lower plasma concentrations of isoniazid on the production of hydrazino metabolites. The ratio of acetylisoniazid to isoniazid in urine was significantly increased in slow acetylators from 0.84 to 1.02 following administration of the slow release preparation, indicating increased acetylation of isoniazid. However, the excretion of diacetylhydrazine relative to the excretion of acetylhydrazine and hydrazine did not change.

It is concluded that exposure to toxic metabolites of isoniazid is increased in slow acetylators. Detoxification of the toxic metabolites was not enhanced by a slow-release preparation of isoniazid.

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Peretti, E., Karlaganis, G. & Lauterburg, B.H. Increased urinary excretion of toxic hydrazino metabolites of isoniazid by slow acetylators. Effect of a slow-release preparation of isoniazid. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 33, 283–286 (1987).

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Key words

  • isoniazid
  • slow acetylators
  • toxic metabolites
  • slow-release preparation
  • urinary excretion