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The energy cost of level cross-country skiing and the effect of the friction of the ski

  • F. Saibene
  • G. Cortili
  • G. Roi
  • A. Colombini
Article

Summary

Oxygen consumption [(\(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \)) in ml·kg−1·min−1], blood lactate concentration ([La] in mM) and dynamic friction of the skis on snow [(F) inN] were measured in six athletes skiing on a level track at different speeds [(v) in m·min−1] and using different methods of propulsion. The\(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) increased withv andF, the latter depending mostly on snow temperature, as did [La]. The\(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) was very much affected by the skiing technique. Multiple regression equations gave the following results: with diagonal stride (DS),\(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) =−23.09+0.189v+0.62N; with double pole (DP),\(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) =−30.95+0.192v+0.51N; and with the new skating technique (S),\(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) =−32.63 +0.171+0.68N. In terms of\(\dot V_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) DS is the most expensive technique, while S is the least expensive; however, asF increases, S, at the highest speed, tends to cost as much as DP. At speeds from 18 to 22 km·h−1, the speeds measured in the competitions, theF for DS and DP can represent from 10% to 50% of the energy expenditure, withF ranging from 10 to 60N; with S this range increases to 20%–70%. This seems to depend on the interface between the skis and the snow and on the different ways the poles are used.

Key words

Cross-country ski Snow friction Cost of locomotion 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Saibene
    • 1
  • G. Cortili
    • 1
  • G. Roi
    • 1
  • A. Colombini
    • 1
  1. 1.Human Physiology UnitIstituto Tecnologie Biomediche Avanzate, C.N.R.MilanoItaly

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