An integrated model (SNOQUALI) for the simulation of meltwater quality has been developed for a boreal forest site (Lake Laflamme, Québec). The model consists of a physical module and a chemical module; it has been validated for H+, NO3 and SO4 2− concentrations in discharge from the snowcover during the spring melt of 1984. Good agreement of simulated ion concentrations with those measured in the field were obtained for the strong acid anions NO3 − and SO4 2−. Greater deviations of simulated concentrations from observed concentrations were recorded in the case of H+. These are attributed to ion exchange reactions between the ion and the organic debris which is deposited continously onto the snowcover from the forest canopy during the winter season.
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Jones, H.G., Sochanska, W., Stein, J. et al. Snowmelt in a boreal forest site: an integrated model of meltwater quality (SNOQUALI). Water Air Soil Pollut 31, 431–439 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00630861
- Exchange Reaction
- Winter Season
- Integrate Model
- Strong Acid