On three localities in Denmark, all with 40 to 50 yr old Norway spruce plantations, but different soil chemistry, ion balance studies have been implemented in 1983. The annual variations in soil water concentrations of cations and anions are described and the potential annual leaching fluxes are determined by means of zero-tension percolation lysimeters at 2 depths (A- and B-horizon). Leaching of A1 and and heavy metals was much more severe on the acidic sites, whereas especially Ca was leached from the nutrient rich site. In parallel with the high concentrations of Al and heavy metals, great needle loss was observed on the two acidic sites. The maximum leaching from the A-horizon was obtained either in the late summer, associated with the effluent of organic material, or in the winter due to large amounts of percolation water. Apart from low Ca and kin levels of one of the sites, the findings from the two acidic localities were comparable to similar studies in Sweden.
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Rasmussen, L. Potential leaching of elements in three Danish Spruce forest soils. Water Air Soil Pollut 31, 377–383 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00630854
- Heavy Metal
- Acidic Site
- Forest Soil
- Annual Variation