Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 31, Issue 1–2, pp 283–294

Responses of five species of conifer seedlings to aluminum stress

  • Thomas C. Hutchinson
  • Leah Bozic
  • Guadalupe Munoz-Vegas


Seedlings of red, white and black spruce, and white and jack pine were tested for their response to a range of Al concentrations, when grown for 12 to 14 weeks in sand culture in the greenhouse. Nutrients were supplied in solution of pH 3.8 to which Al was supplied at 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/L. Red and white spruce were inhibited in growth from 5 mg/L upwards, while black spruce was equally inhibited only at concentrations > 20 mg/L. In contrast, white pine was stimulated by 5 to 20 mg Al/L and was always more tolerant than the other 4 species at every Al level used. Jack pine was intermediate in its response. There was a positive linear relationship between P and Al accumulation in the shoots of red spruce. This was in contrast to the other 4 species in which P concentrations in the shoot decreased with an increase in Al concentrations. In localization studies on jack pine using a modified hematoxylin stain, Al was shown to accumulate in the root cap of root tips, and in the epidermal and outer cortical walls of older roots. EDAX-SEM analysis confirmed the tissue distribution of Al and revealed its coincidental distribution with. P in roots.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bozic, L. E.: 1986, ‘The effect of Al on jack pine seedlings and its localization within the root tissue’ MSc thesis, Dept. of Botany, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  2. Clymo, R. C.: 1962,J. Ecol. 50, 707.Google Scholar
  3. Cumming, J. R., Eckert, R. T., and Evans, L. S.: 1985,Can. J. Bot. 63, 1099.Google Scholar
  4. Foy, C. D., Chaney, R. C., and White, M. C.: 1978,Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 29, 511.Google Scholar
  5. Hallenbacken, L., and Tamm, C. O.: 1986,Water, Air and Soil Pollut., this volume.Google Scholar
  6. Havas, M.: 1986,Water, Air and Soil Pollut., this volume.Google Scholar
  7. Hutchinson, T. C.: 1983, ‘A historical perspective on the role of aluminum in the toxicity of acid soils and waters, In: International Symp. Heavy Metals in the Environment. Heidelberg, 1983, CEP Consultants, Edinburgh, pp. 17–26.Google Scholar
  8. Ingestad, T.: 1962,Medd. Stat. Skogsf. Inst. 51, 1.Google Scholar
  9. Johnson, A.: 1983,J. Air Poll. Cont. Assoc. 33, 1049.Google Scholar
  10. Krause, G., Arndt, V., Brandt, C. J., Bucher, J., Kenk, G., and Matzner, E.: 1986,Water, Air and Soil Pollut., this volume.Google Scholar
  11. Magistad, O. C.: 1925,Soil Sci. 20, 181.Google Scholar
  12. McCormick, L. H. and Borden, F. Y.: 1974,Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc.,38, 931.Google Scholar
  13. Muller, H., and Abrahamsen, G.: 1984, personal communication.Google Scholar
  14. Nilsson, S. I., and Bergkvist, B.: 1983,Water, Air and Soil Pollut.,20, 311.Google Scholar
  15. Rorison, I.: 1960,J. Ecol. 48, 585.Google Scholar
  16. Rost-Siebert, K.: 1984, ‘Aluminum toxicity in seedlings of Norway spruce and beech.’ In: Andersson, F. and Kelly, J. M.Aluminum Toxicity in Trees, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet Intern. Workshop, 49–68.Google Scholar
  17. Sampson, M., Clarkson, D. T., and Davies, D.D.: 1965,Science 148, 1476.Google Scholar
  18. Schier, G.: 1985,Can. J. For. Res. 15, 29.Google Scholar
  19. Siccama, T.G., Bliss, M. and Vogelmann, H. W.: 1982,Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 109, 162.Google Scholar
  20. Tyler, G., Berggren, D., Bergvist, B., Falkengren-Grerup, U., Folkeson, L., and Ruhling, A.: 1985, ‘Soil acidification and metal solubility in forests in south Sweden.’ In: Hutchinson, T. C. and Meema, K. M. (Eds.)Effects of Acidic Deposition of Forests, Wetlands and Agricultural Ecosystems, NATO Advanced Research Workshop Proc. Toronto, May 12–17, 1985. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  21. Ulrich, B., and Matzner, E.: 1983,Forschungsbericht 104 02615. UBA, Berlin.Google Scholar
  22. Ulrich, B., Mayer, R., and Khanna, P. K.: 1979,Schiften aus der Forstlichen Fakultat der Universitat Gottingen 58, 1.Google Scholar
  23. Ulrich, B., Mayer, R., and Khanna, P. K.: 1980,Soil Sci. 130 193.Google Scholar
  24. Womack, F. C., and Colowick, S. P.: 1979,Proc. Nat. Acad. U.S.A. 76, 5080.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas C. Hutchinson
    • 1
  • Leah Bozic
    • 1
  • Guadalupe Munoz-Vegas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany and Institute for Environmental StudiesUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Xochimilco Depto El Hombre y su ambienteUniversidad Autonoma MetropolitanaMexico D.F.

Personalised recommendations