Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The “no crossing constraint” in autosegmental phonology

  • 149 Accesses

  • 19 Citations

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Archangeli, D.: 1985, ‘Yokuts Harmony: Evidence for Coplanar Representation in Nonlinear Phonology’,Linguistic Inquiry 16, 335–372.

  2. Bird, S. and E. Klein: 1990, ‘Phonological Events’,Journal of Linguistics 26, 33–56.

  3. Broe, M.: 1988, ‘A Unification-Based Approach to Prosodic Analysis’, in G. Docherty, J. Miller and L. Stirling (eds.),Work in Progress 21, Department of Linguistics, University of Edinburgh, pp. 63–82.

  4. Browman, C. P. and L. M. Goldstein: 1986, ‘Towards an Articulatory Phonology’,Phonology Yearbook 3, 219–252.

  5. Chomsky, N.: 1963, ‘Formal Properties of Grammars’, in R. D. Luce, R. R. Bush and E. Galanter (eds.),Handbook of Mathematical Psychology Volume II. John Wiley, New York.

  6. Clements, G. N.: 1985, ‘The Geometry of Phonological Features’,Phonology Yearbook 2, 225–252.

  7. Clements, G. N.: 1986, ‘Compensatory Lengthening and Consonant Gemination in LuGanda’, in Wetzels and Sezer (eds).

  8. Clements, G. N. and S. J. Keyser: 1983,CV Phonology: a Generative Theory of the Syllable, M.I.T. Press, Linguistic Inquiry Monographs 9. Cambridge, Massachussetts.

  9. Coleman, J.: 1990, ‘Unification Phonology: Another look at “Synthesis-by-Rule”, in H. Karlgren (ed.),COLING-90. Papers presented to the 13th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, International Committee on Computational Linguistics/Helsinki University, pp. 79–84.

  10. Culy, C.: 1985, ‘The Complexity of the Vocabulary of Bambara’,Linguistics and Philosophy 8, 345–351.

  11. Dogil, G.: 1984, ‘Nonlinear Phonology in the Area of Speech and Grammar Pathology’, in H. van der Hulst and N. Smith (eds.),Advances in Nonlinear Phonology, Foris, Dordrecht, pp. 161–178.

  12. Foley, J.: 1977,Foundations of Theoretical Phonology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  13. Gibbons, A.: 1985,Algorithmic Graph Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  14. Goldsmith, J. A.: 1976,Autosegmental Phonology, Indiana University Linguistics Club, Bloomington.

  15. Goldsmith, J. A.: 1985, ‘Vowel Harmony in Khalkha Mongolian, Yaka, Finnish and Hungarian’,Phonology Yearbook 2, 253–275.

  16. Goldsmith, J. A.: 1990,Autosegmental and Metrical Phonology', Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

  17. Halle, M.: 1985, ‘Speculations about the Representation of Words in Memory’, in V. A. Fromkin (ed.),Phonetic Linguistics: Essays in Honor of Peter Ladefoged. Academic Press, New York.

  18. Halle, M. and J.-R. Vergnaud: 1980, ‘Three Dimensional Phonology’,Journal of Linguistic Research 1(1), 83–105.

  19. Halle, M. and J.-R. Vergnaud: 1987: ‘Stress and the Cycle’,Linguistic Inquiry 18, 45–84.

  20. Hammond, M.: 1988, On Deriving the ‘Well-Formedness Condition’,Linguistic Inquiry 19, 319–325.

  21. Hayes, B.: 1989, ‘Compensatory Lengthening in Moraic Phonology’,Linguistic Inquiry 20, 253–306.

  22. Hoberman, R. D.: 1988, ‘Local and Long-Distance Spreading in Semitic Morphology’,Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 6, 541–549.

  23. Huybregts, R.: 1984, ‘The Weak Inadequacy of Context-Free Phrase Structure Grammars’, in G. de Haan, M. Trommelen, and W. Zonneveld (eds.),Van Periferie naar Kern, Foris, Dordrecht.

  24. International Phonetic Association 1989, Report on the 1989 Kiel Convention,Journal of the International Phonetic Association 19, 67–80.

  25. Kay, M.: 1987, ‘Nonconcatenative Finite-State Morphology’, in Proceedings of the. 3rd European Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics 2–10.

  26. Kaye, J. D.: 1985, ‘On the Syllable Structure of Certain West African Languages’, in D. L. Goyvaerts (ed.),African Linguistics: Essays in Memory of M. W. K. Semikenke, John Benjamins, Amsterdam.

  27. Kelly, J. and J. K. Local: 1986, ‘Long-Domain Resonance Patterns in English’, inInternational Conference on Speech Input/Output Techniques and Applications, IEE Conference Publication No. 258.

  28. Kelly, J. and J. K. Local: 1989,Doing Phonology, Manchester University Press, Manchester.

  29. Kitagawa, Y.: 1987, ‘Redoing Reduplication: A Preliminary Sketch’, in G. J. Huck and A. E. Ojeda (eds.),Discontinuous Constituency, Syntax and Semantics vol. 20, pp. 71–106.

  30. Kuratowski, G.: 1930, ‘Sur le Problème des Courbes Gauches en Topologie’,Fundamenta Mathematicæ 15, 271–83.

  31. Local, J. K.: 1989, ‘Modelling Assimilation in Non-Segmental Rule-Free Synthesis’, to appear in R. Ladd and G. Docherty (eds.),Papers from the Second Conference on Laboratory Phonology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  32. Lord, E. A. and C. B. Wilson: 1984,The Mathematical Description of Shape and Form, Ellis Horwood, Chichester.

  33. Lowenstamm, J. and J. Kaye: 1986, ‘Compensatory Lengthening in Tiberian Hebrew’, in Wetzels and Sezer (eds.).

  34. Manaster-Ramer, A.: 1983, ‘The Soft Formal Underbelly of Theoretical Syntax’,C.L.S. 19, 256–263.

  35. McCarthy, J. J.: 1979/1982,Formal Problems in Semitic Phonology and Morphology, Indiana University Linguistics Club, Bloomington.

  36. McCarthy, J. J.: 1981, ‘A Prosodic Theory of Nonconcatenative Morphology’,Linguistic Inquiry 12, 373–418.

  37. McCarthy, J. J.: 1986, ‘OCP Effects: Gemination and Antigemination’,Linguistic Inquiry 17, 207–263.

  38. McCarthy, J. J.: 1989, ‘Linear Order in Phonological Representation’,Linguistic Inquiry 20, 71–99.

  39. McCarthy, J. J. and A. S. Prince: 1990, ‘Foot and Word in Prosodic Morphology: The Arabic Broken Plural’,Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 8, 209–283.

  40. Prince, A. S.: 1984, ‘Phonology with Tiers’, in M. Aronoff and R. Oehrle (eds.),Language Sound Structure, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachussetts.

  41. Prince, A. S.: 1987, ‘Planes and Copying’,Linguistic Inquiry 18, 491–509.

  42. Pulleyblank, D.: 1986,Tone in Lexical Phonology, D. Reidel, Dordrecht.

  43. Pulleyblank, D.: 1988, ‘Vocalic Underspecification in Yoruba’,Linguistic Inquiry 19, 233–270.

  44. Pullum, G. and Gazdar, G.: 1982, ‘Natural Languages and Context Free Languages’,Linguistics and Philosophy 4, 471–504.

  45. Rosen, B. K.: 1977, ‘Arcs in Graphs are NOT Pairs of Nodes’,SIGACT News. Fall 1977, 25–27.

  46. Sagey, E.: 1988, ‘On the Ill-formedness of Crossing Association Lines’,Linguistic Inquiry 19, 109–118.

  47. Scobbie, J.: 1988, ‘Minimal Redundancy in the Sequencing of Autosegments’, in G. Docherty, J. Miller and L. Stirling (eds.)Work in Progress 21. Department of Linguistics, University of Edinburgh, pp. 51–62.

  48. Shieber, S.: 1985, ‘Evidence Against the Context-Freeness of Natural Languages’,Linguistics and Philosophy 8, 333–343.

  49. van der Hulst, H. and N. Smith: 1982, Introduction to H. van der Hulst and N. Smith, (eds.),The Structure of Phonological Representations vol. I. Foris, Dordrecht.

  50. Wetzels, L.: 1986, ‘Phonological Timing in Ancient Greek’, in Wetzels and Sezer (eds.).

  51. Wetzels, L. and E. Sezer (eds.), 1986,Studies in Compensatory Lengthening, Foris, Dordrecht.

  52. Wilson, R. J.: 1985,Introduction to Graph Theory, Longman, London.

Download references

Author information

Additional information

We would like to thank Adrian Simpson, Anthony Warner, Ewan Klein and several anonymous reviewers for their extensive comments on this paper. We have also benefitted from valuable discussions on the content of this paper with Jim Scobbie, John Kelly, William Edmondson and Steven Bird. Their assistance has, we feel, improved this paper considerably. Those faults which remain are entirely ours.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Coleman, J., Local, J. The “no crossing constraint” in autosegmental phonology. Linguist Philos 14, 295–338 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00627405

Download citation


  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computational Linguistic
  • Autosegmental Phonology