Naturwissenschaften

, Volume 58, Issue 10, pp 465–523 | Cite as

Selforganization of matter and the evolution of biological macromolecules

  • Manfred Eigen
Article

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Watson, J. D., Crick, F. H. C.: Nature177, 964 (1953).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Kornberg, A.: Science163, 1410 (1969).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    de Lucia, P., Cairns, J.: Nature224, 1164 (1969).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Transcription of Genetic Material. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol.35 (1970).Google Scholar
  5. [5a)]
    Holley, R. W., Apgar, J., Everett, G. A., Madison, J. T., Marquisee, M., Merril, S. H., Penswick, J. R., Zamir, A.: Science147, 1462 (1965).Google Scholar
  6. [5b)]
    Zachau, H. G., Dütting, D., Feldmann, H.: Angew. Chem.78, 392 (1966).Google Scholar
  7. [5c)]
    Rajbhandari, V. L., Stuart, A., Faulkner, R. D., Chang, S. H., Khorana, H. G.: Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol.31, 425 (1966).Google Scholar
  8. [6]
    Yarus, M., Berg, P.: J. Mol. Biol.42, 171 (1969).Google Scholar
  9. [7]
    Nomura, M., in: Scientific American, December 1969 and The Neurosciences, 2nd Study Program (ed. by F. O. Schmitt). New York: The Rockefeller University Press 1970, p. 913.Google Scholar
  10. [8]
    Garret, R. A., Wittmann, H. G., in: Aspects of Protein Biosynthesis (ed. by T. B. Anfinsen). New York: Academic Press 1971.Google Scholar
  11. [9]
    Jacob, F., Monod, J.: J. Mol. Biol.3, 318 (1961).Google Scholar
  12. [10]
    Gilbert, W., Müller-Hill, B.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA56, 1891 (1966);58, 2415 (1967).Google Scholar
  13. [11]
    Riggs, A. D., Bourgeois, S., Cohn, M.: J. Mol. Biol.53, 401 (1970).Google Scholar
  14. [12]
    Watson, J. D.: The Molecular Biology of the Gene. New York: W. A. Benjamin, Inc. 1970.Google Scholar
  15. [13]
    Molekularbiologie (ed. by Th. Wieland and G. Pfleiderer). Frankfurt: Umschau-Verlag 1969.Google Scholar
  16. [14]
    Wigner, E., in: The Logic of Personal Knowledge. Essays presented to Michael Polanyi on his seventieth birthday 11th March 1961 (ed. by E. Shils). Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press 1961.Google Scholar
  17. [15]
    Wiener, N.: Cybernetics (German translation: Kybernetik). Düsseldorf-Wien: Econ Verlag 1963.Google Scholar
  18. [16]
    Brillouin, L.: Science and Information Theory. New York: Academic Press 1963.Google Scholar
  19. [17]
    Nishimura, S., Jones, S. D., Khorana, H. G.: J. Mol. Biol.13, 302 (1965).Google Scholar
  20. [18]
    Nirenberg, M. W., Matthaei, J. H.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA47, 1588 (1961).Google Scholar
  21. [19]
    Ochoa, S., in: Horizons in Biochemistry (ed. by M. Kasha and B. Pullman). New York: Academic Press 1962.Google Scholar
  22. [20]
    Crick, F. H. C.: J. Mol. Biol.19, 548 (1966).Google Scholar
  23. [21]
    Shannon, C. E.: Bell System Tech. J.30, 50 (1951). Shannon, C. E., Weaver, W.: The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press 1949.Google Scholar
  24. [22]
    Dutta, M.: Physics Today21, 75 (1968).Google Scholar
  25. [23]
    Schroedinger, E.: What is Life? Cambridge University Press 1944 (German edition: Leo Lehnen Verlag, München 1951).Google Scholar
  26. [24]
    Darwin, C.: The Origin of Species, chapter 4, London 1872: Reprinted by Collier MacMillan Ltd., London 1959, pg. 91.Google Scholar
  27. [25]
    Darwin, C.: ibid. The Origin of Species, chapter 15, London 1872: Reprinted by Collier MacMillan Ltd., London 1959, pg. 476.Google Scholar
  28. [26]
    Fisher, R. A.: Proc. Roy. Soc. B141, 510 (1953).Google Scholar
  29. [27]
    Haldane, J. B. S.: Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc.23, 838 (1927).Google Scholar
  30. [28]
    Wright, S.: Evolution in Mendelian Populations. Genetics16, 97 (1931). cf. also: Bull. Am. Math. Soc.48, 233 (1942).Google Scholar
  31. [29]
    Perutz, M.: Nature228, 726 (1970).Google Scholar
  32. [30]
    Crick, F. H. C.: Of Molecules and Men. Seattle-London: Univ. of Washington Press 1966.Google Scholar
  33. [31]
    Oparin, A. I.: Origin of Life. Moscow 1924. Genesis and Evolutionary Development of Life. New York: Academic Press 1968.Google Scholar
  34. [32]
    Calvin, M.: Chemical Evolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1969.Google Scholar
  35. [33]
    Fox, S. W.: Science132, 200 (1960); Naturwissenschaften56, 1 (1969).Google Scholar
  36. [34]
    Ponnamperuma, C., Gabel, N. W.: Space Life Sci.1, 64 (1968). Ponnamperuma, C., Sagan, C., Mariner, R.: Nature199, 222 (1963).Google Scholar
  37. [35a)]
    Crick, F. H. C.: J. Mol. Biol.38, 367 (1968).Google Scholar
  38. [35b)]
    Orgel, L.: J. Mol. Biol.38, 381 (1968).Google Scholar
  39. [36]
    Schramm, G., in: The Origins of Prebiological Systems (ed. by S. W. Fox). New York: Academic Press 1965, p. 229.Google Scholar
  40. [37]
    Schneider-Bernloehr, H., Lohrmann, R., Sulston, J., Orgel, L. E., Miles, H. T.: J. Mol. Biol.37, 151 (1968).Google Scholar
  41. [38]
    Paecht-Horowitz, M., Berger, J., Katchalsky, A.: Nature228, 636 (1970).Google Scholar
  42. [39]
    Meixner, J.: Ann. Phys.43, 470 (1943); Kolloid Z.134, 3 (1953).Google Scholar
  43. [40]
    Prigogine, I.: Etude Thermodynamique des Processus Irréversibles. Liège: Desoer 1947.Google Scholar
  44. [41]
    de Groot, S. R.: Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Co. 1952.Google Scholar
  45. [42]
    Onsager, L.: Phys. Rev.37, 405 (1931);38, 2265 (1931).Google Scholar
  46. [43]
    Glansdorff, P., Prigogine, I.: Thermodynamic Theory of Structure, Stability and Fluctuations. New York: Wiley Interscience 1971.Google Scholar
  47. [44]
    Eigen, M., in: Les Prix Nobel en 1967, pg. 151. Stockholm 1969.Google Scholar
  48. [45]
    Jost, W.: Z. Naturforsch.20, 159 (1947); Z. phys. Chem.105, 317 (1950).Google Scholar
  49. [46]
    Prigogine, I., in: Theoretical Physics and Biology (ed. by M. Marois). Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Co. 1969.Google Scholar
  50. [47]
    Winkler, R., Eigen, M.: in preparation.Google Scholar
  51. [48]
    Fresco, J. R., Alberts, B. M., Doty, P.: Nature188, 98 (1960).Google Scholar
  52. [49]
    Volterra, V.: Leçons sur la théorie mathématique de la lutte pour la vie. Paris 1931.Google Scholar
  53. [50]
    Kamke, E.: Differentialgleichungen, Lösungsmethoden und Lösungen. Leipzig 1944.Google Scholar
  54. [51]
    Haldane, J. B. S.: The Cause of Evolution. Longman, Green and Co. 1932.Google Scholar
  55. [52]
    Ross, R.: The Prevention of Malaria (1911), cf. Lotka, A. J.: Amer. J. Hygiene, January Suppl. (1923).Google Scholar
  56. [53]
    Lotka, A. J.: Elements of Mathematical Biology. New York: Dover Publications 1956.Google Scholar
  57. [54]
    Jordan, P.: Die Physik und das Geheimnis des organischen Lebens. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg u. Sohn 1945.Google Scholar
  58. [55]
    Ramakrishnan, A., in: Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. VIII/2, p. 524 (ed. by S. Flügge). Berlin: Springer 1959. Barlett, M. S.: Stochastic Processes. Cambridge 1955.Google Scholar
  59. [56]
    Ehrenfest, P., Ehrenfest, T.: Phys. Z.8, 311 (1907).Google Scholar
  60. [57]
    ter Haar, D., Green, C. D.: Proc. Phys. Soc. London A66, 153 (1953).Google Scholar
  61. [58]
    Kac, M.: Amer. Math. Monthly54, 369 (1947).Google Scholar
  62. [59]
    Klein, J. M.: Phys. Rev.103, 17 (1956).Google Scholar
  63. [60]
    Kohlrausch, K. W. F., Schrödinger, E.: Phys. Z.27, 306 (1926).Google Scholar
  64. [61]
    Münster, A., in: Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. VIII/2, p. 218 (ed. by S. Flügge). Berlin: Springer 1959.Google Scholar
  65. [62]
    Bartholomay, A. F.: Bull. Math. Biophys.20, 97 (1958);20, 175 (1958);21, 363 (1959).Google Scholar
  66. [63]
    Delbrück, M.: J. Chem. Phys.8, 120 (1940).Google Scholar
  67. [64]
    McQuarrie, D. A.: Stochastical Approach to Chemical Kinetics. London: Methuen 1967.Google Scholar
  68. [65]
    Doob, J. L.: Stochastic Processes. New York: J. Wiley 1953.Google Scholar
  69. [66]
    Eigen, M., Pörschke, D.: J. Mol. Biol.53, 123 (1970); cf. also part II (Ref. [84]) and part III (in press).Google Scholar
  70. [67]
    Eigen, M.: Nobel Symposium 5 on Fast Reactions and Primary Processes in Chemical Kinetics (ed. by S. Claesson). Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell Intersci. Publ. 1968.Google Scholar
  71. [68]
    Gibbs, J.: Advances in Chemical Physics (ed. by K. E. Shuler), pg. 185. New York: Interscience 1969.Google Scholar
  72. [69]
    Eigen, M., De Maeyer, L., in: Technique of Organic Chemistry, Vol. VII/2 (ed. by A. Weissberger). New York: Wiley Interscience 1963.Google Scholar
  73. [70]
    Kyogoku, Y., Lord, R. C., Rich, A.: Science154, 518 (1966); J. Amer. Chem. Soc.89, 496 (1967); Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.57, 250 (1967). cf. also: Voet, D., Rich, A.: Progr. Nucleic Acid Res. Molec. Biol.10, 183 (1970).Google Scholar
  74. [71]
    Küchler, E., Derkosch, J.: Z. Naturforsch.21b, 209 (1966).Google Scholar
  75. [72]
    Funck, Th.: unpublished results.Google Scholar
  76. [73]
    Eggers, F., Funck, Th., Hopmann, R.: unpublished results.Google Scholar
  77. [74]
    Pörschke, D.: Diplom-thesis. Göttingen 1966.Google Scholar
  78. [75]
    Pörschke, D.: Dissertation. Göttingen-Braunschweig 1968.Google Scholar
  79. [76]
    Podder, S. K.: Biochemistry (to be published).Google Scholar
  80. [77]
    Römer, R., Riesner, D., Coutts, S. M., Maass, G.: Europ. J. Biochem.15, 77, 85 (1970).Google Scholar
  81. [78]
    Römer, R., Riesner, D., Maass, G., Wintermayer, W., Thiebe, R., Zachau, H. G.: FEBS Letters5, 15, 23 (1969).Google Scholar
  82. [79]
    Philippsen, P., Thiebe, R., Wintermayer, W., Zachau, H. G.: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.33, 922 (1968).Google Scholar
  83. [80]
    Uhlenbeck, O. C., Baller, J., Doty, P.: Nature225, 508 (1970).Google Scholar
  84. [81]
    Lewis, J. B., Doty, P.: Nature225, 510 (1970).Google Scholar
  85. [82]
    Martin, F., Pörschke, D., Uhlenbeck, O.: unpublished results.Google Scholar
  86. [83]
    Applequist, J., Damle, V.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc.87, 1450 (1965).Google Scholar
  87. [84]
    Pörschke, D.: Biopolymers (in press).Google Scholar
  88. [85]
    Blow, D. M., Birktoft, J. J., Hartley, B. S.: Nature221, 337 (1969).Google Scholar
  89. [86]
    Fox, S.: Naturwissenschaften56, 1 (1969).Google Scholar
  90. [87]
    Berger, A., Schechter, I.: Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., LondonB 257, 249 (1970).Google Scholar
  91. [88]
    Lipmann, F., in: O. Meyerhoff Symposium, July 1970, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  92. [89]
    Monod, J., Wyman, J., Changeux, J. P.: J. Mol. Biol.12, 88 (1965).Google Scholar
  93. [90]
    Koshland, D. E., Nemethy, G., Filmer, D.: Biochemistry5, 365 (1966).Google Scholar
  94. [91a)]
    Kirschner, K., Eigen, M., Bittman, R., Voigt, B.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)56, 1661 (1966).Google Scholar
  95. [91b)]
    Kirschner, K.: Curr. Topics Microbiol. Immunol.44, 124 (1968).Google Scholar
  96. [92]
    Eigen, M., Schuster, P.: (to be published).Google Scholar
  97. [93]
    Oparin, A. I., in: The Origin of Prebiological Systems and of their Molecular Matrices (ed. by S. W. Fox). New York: Academic Press 1965, p. 331.Google Scholar
  98. [94]
    Fox, S. W., in: The Origin of Prebiological Systems and of their Molecular Matrices (ed. by S. W. Fox). New York: Academic Press 1965, p. 361.Google Scholar
  99. [95]
    Huang, C.: Biochemistry8, 344 (1969).Google Scholar
  100. [96]
    Träuble, H., Grell, E.: Neurosci. Res. Program Bull. 1971.Google Scholar
  101. [97]
    Tsofina, L. E., Liberman, E. A., Babakov, A. V.: Nature212, 681 (1966); cf. also Delbrück, M., in: The Neurosciences. 2nd Study Program, p. 677. New York: The Rockefeller Univ. Press 1970.Google Scholar
  102. [98]
    Woese, C. R.: The Genetic Code. New York: Harper and Row 1967.Google Scholar
  103. [99]
    Crick, F. H. C.: The Genetic Code (ref. to the original frame shift experiment of S. Brenner and F. H. C. Crick), Scientific American, October 1962, cf. also [35].Google Scholar
  104. [100]
    Crothers, D.: Personal communication (given at a seminar, Göttingen 1970).Google Scholar
  105. [101]
    Rechenberg, I.: Dissertation. Technical University, Berlin 1970.Google Scholar
  106. [102]
    Lipmann, F., in: The Origin of Prebiological Systems and of their Molecular Matrices, p. 259. New York: Academic Press 1965.Google Scholar
  107. [103]
    Edelman, M., Verma, I. M., Littauer, U. Z.: J. Mol. Biol.49, 67 (1970).Google Scholar
  108. [104]
    Woese, C. R.: Bio Science20, 471 (1970).Google Scholar
  109. [105]
    Spiegelman, S., in: The Neurosciences. 2nd Study Program (ed. by F. O. Schmitt). New York: The Rockefeller Univ. Press 1970.Google Scholar
  110. [106]
    Haruna, I., Nozu, K., Ohtaka, Y., Spiegelman, S.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA50, 905 (1963);54, 579 (1965).Google Scholar
  111. [107]
    Spiegelman, S., Haruna, I., Holland, I. B., Beaudreau, G., Mills, D. R.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA54, 919 (1965).Google Scholar
  112. [108]
    Levisohn, R., Spiegelman, S.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA60, 866 (1968).Google Scholar
  113. [109]
    Weber, H., Weissmann, Ch.: Chimia24, 35 (1970).Google Scholar
  114. [110]
    Bishop, D. H. L., Mills, D. R., Spiegelman, S.: Biochemistry7, 3744 (1968).Google Scholar
  115. [111]
    Levisohn, R., Spiegelman, S.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA63, 805 (1969).Google Scholar
  116. [112]
    Mills, D. R., Peterson, R. I., Spiegelman, S.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA58, 217 (1967).Google Scholar
  117. [113]
    Orgel, L. E.: (personal communication by S. Spiegelman).Google Scholar
  118. [114]
    Wittgenstein, L.: Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 7. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1922.Google Scholar
  119. [115]
    Carathéodory, C.: Math. Ann.67, 355 (1909).Google Scholar
  120. [116]
    Falk, G., Jung, H., in: Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. III/2, p. 119 (ed. by S. Flügge). Berlin: Springer 1959.Google Scholar
  121. [117]
    Monod, J.: Le Hasard et la Nécessité. Paris: Seuil 1970.Google Scholar
  122. [118]
    v. Neumann, J.: Zur Theorie der Gesellschaftsspiele. Math. Ann.100, 295 (1928).Google Scholar
  123. [119]
    v. Neumann, J., Morgenstern, O.: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Princeton: Univ. Press 1953. Suchowitzki, S. I., Awdejewa, L. I.: Lineare und komplexe Programmierung. München: R. Oldenbourg 1969.Google Scholar
  124. [120]
    Lewontin, R. C.: J. Theoret. Biol.1, 382 (1961).Google Scholar
  125. [121]
    Warburton, F. E.: J. Theoret. Biol.16, 78 (1967).Google Scholar
  126. [122]
    Kimura, M.: Genet. Res. Camb.2, 127 (1961).Google Scholar
  127. [123]
    Mac Kay, D. M., in: Information, Mechanism and Meaning, chapter 12, pg. 132. Boston: M.I.T. Press 1969.Google Scholar
  128. [124]
    Waddington, C. H.: The Nature of Life. London: Unwin Books 1961.Google Scholar
  129. [125]
    Stent, G.: The Coming of the Golden Age. Garden City N. Y.: The Natural History Press 1969.Google Scholar
  130. [126]
    Kimura, M.: Nature217, 624 (1968).Google Scholar
  131. [127]
    King, J. L., Jukes, T. H.: Science164, 788 (1969).Google Scholar
  132. [128]
    Oparin, A. I.: Life: its Nature, Origin and Development. New York: Academic Press 1961.Google Scholar
  133. [129]
    v. Neumann, J.: Theory of self-reproducing automata. Urbana: Univ. Illinois Press 1966.Google Scholar
  134. [130]
    Wittgenstein, L.: Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 6.521. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1922.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manfred Eigen
    • 1
  1. 1.Karl-Friedrich-Bonhoeffer-InstitutMax-Planck-Institut für Biophysikalische ChemieGöttingen-Nikolausberg

Personalised recommendations