, Volume 58, Issue 10, pp 465–523 | Cite as

Selforganization of matter and the evolution of biological macromolecules

  • Manfred Eigen


Macromolecule Biological Macromolecule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Watson, J. D., Crick, F. H. C.: Nature177, 964 (1953).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Kornberg, A.: Science163, 1410 (1969).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    de Lucia, P., Cairns, J.: Nature224, 1164 (1969).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Transcription of Genetic Material. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol.35 (1970).Google Scholar
  5. [5a)]
    Holley, R. W., Apgar, J., Everett, G. A., Madison, J. T., Marquisee, M., Merril, S. H., Penswick, J. R., Zamir, A.: Science147, 1462 (1965).Google Scholar
  6. [5b)]
    Zachau, H. G., Dütting, D., Feldmann, H.: Angew. Chem.78, 392 (1966).Google Scholar
  7. [5c)]
    Rajbhandari, V. L., Stuart, A., Faulkner, R. D., Chang, S. H., Khorana, H. G.: Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol.31, 425 (1966).Google Scholar
  8. [6]
    Yarus, M., Berg, P.: J. Mol. Biol.42, 171 (1969).Google Scholar
  9. [7]
    Nomura, M., in: Scientific American, December 1969 and The Neurosciences, 2nd Study Program (ed. by F. O. Schmitt). New York: The Rockefeller University Press 1970, p. 913.Google Scholar
  10. [8]
    Garret, R. A., Wittmann, H. G., in: Aspects of Protein Biosynthesis (ed. by T. B. Anfinsen). New York: Academic Press 1971.Google Scholar
  11. [9]
    Jacob, F., Monod, J.: J. Mol. Biol.3, 318 (1961).Google Scholar
  12. [10]
    Gilbert, W., Müller-Hill, B.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA56, 1891 (1966);58, 2415 (1967).Google Scholar
  13. [11]
    Riggs, A. D., Bourgeois, S., Cohn, M.: J. Mol. Biol.53, 401 (1970).Google Scholar
  14. [12]
    Watson, J. D.: The Molecular Biology of the Gene. New York: W. A. Benjamin, Inc. 1970.Google Scholar
  15. [13]
    Molekularbiologie (ed. by Th. Wieland and G. Pfleiderer). Frankfurt: Umschau-Verlag 1969.Google Scholar
  16. [14]
    Wigner, E., in: The Logic of Personal Knowledge. Essays presented to Michael Polanyi on his seventieth birthday 11th March 1961 (ed. by E. Shils). Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press 1961.Google Scholar
  17. [15]
    Wiener, N.: Cybernetics (German translation: Kybernetik). Düsseldorf-Wien: Econ Verlag 1963.Google Scholar
  18. [16]
    Brillouin, L.: Science and Information Theory. New York: Academic Press 1963.Google Scholar
  19. [17]
    Nishimura, S., Jones, S. D., Khorana, H. G.: J. Mol. Biol.13, 302 (1965).Google Scholar
  20. [18]
    Nirenberg, M. W., Matthaei, J. H.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA47, 1588 (1961).Google Scholar
  21. [19]
    Ochoa, S., in: Horizons in Biochemistry (ed. by M. Kasha and B. Pullman). New York: Academic Press 1962.Google Scholar
  22. [20]
    Crick, F. H. C.: J. Mol. Biol.19, 548 (1966).Google Scholar
  23. [21]
    Shannon, C. E.: Bell System Tech. J.30, 50 (1951). Shannon, C. E., Weaver, W.: The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press 1949.Google Scholar
  24. [22]
    Dutta, M.: Physics Today21, 75 (1968).Google Scholar
  25. [23]
    Schroedinger, E.: What is Life? Cambridge University Press 1944 (German edition: Leo Lehnen Verlag, München 1951).Google Scholar
  26. [24]
    Darwin, C.: The Origin of Species, chapter 4, London 1872: Reprinted by Collier MacMillan Ltd., London 1959, pg. 91.Google Scholar
  27. [25]
    Darwin, C.: ibid. The Origin of Species, chapter 15, London 1872: Reprinted by Collier MacMillan Ltd., London 1959, pg. 476.Google Scholar
  28. [26]
    Fisher, R. A.: Proc. Roy. Soc. B141, 510 (1953).Google Scholar
  29. [27]
    Haldane, J. B. S.: Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc.23, 838 (1927).Google Scholar
  30. [28]
    Wright, S.: Evolution in Mendelian Populations. Genetics16, 97 (1931). cf. also: Bull. Am. Math. Soc.48, 233 (1942).Google Scholar
  31. [29]
    Perutz, M.: Nature228, 726 (1970).Google Scholar
  32. [30]
    Crick, F. H. C.: Of Molecules and Men. Seattle-London: Univ. of Washington Press 1966.Google Scholar
  33. [31]
    Oparin, A. I.: Origin of Life. Moscow 1924. Genesis and Evolutionary Development of Life. New York: Academic Press 1968.Google Scholar
  34. [32]
    Calvin, M.: Chemical Evolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1969.Google Scholar
  35. [33]
    Fox, S. W.: Science132, 200 (1960); Naturwissenschaften56, 1 (1969).Google Scholar
  36. [34]
    Ponnamperuma, C., Gabel, N. W.: Space Life Sci.1, 64 (1968). Ponnamperuma, C., Sagan, C., Mariner, R.: Nature199, 222 (1963).Google Scholar
  37. [35a)]
    Crick, F. H. C.: J. Mol. Biol.38, 367 (1968).Google Scholar
  38. [35b)]
    Orgel, L.: J. Mol. Biol.38, 381 (1968).Google Scholar
  39. [36]
    Schramm, G., in: The Origins of Prebiological Systems (ed. by S. W. Fox). New York: Academic Press 1965, p. 229.Google Scholar
  40. [37]
    Schneider-Bernloehr, H., Lohrmann, R., Sulston, J., Orgel, L. E., Miles, H. T.: J. Mol. Biol.37, 151 (1968).Google Scholar
  41. [38]
    Paecht-Horowitz, M., Berger, J., Katchalsky, A.: Nature228, 636 (1970).Google Scholar
  42. [39]
    Meixner, J.: Ann. Phys.43, 470 (1943); Kolloid Z.134, 3 (1953).Google Scholar
  43. [40]
    Prigogine, I.: Etude Thermodynamique des Processus Irréversibles. Liège: Desoer 1947.Google Scholar
  44. [41]
    de Groot, S. R.: Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Co. 1952.Google Scholar
  45. [42]
    Onsager, L.: Phys. Rev.37, 405 (1931);38, 2265 (1931).Google Scholar
  46. [43]
    Glansdorff, P., Prigogine, I.: Thermodynamic Theory of Structure, Stability and Fluctuations. New York: Wiley Interscience 1971.Google Scholar
  47. [44]
    Eigen, M., in: Les Prix Nobel en 1967, pg. 151. Stockholm 1969.Google Scholar
  48. [45]
    Jost, W.: Z. Naturforsch.20, 159 (1947); Z. phys. Chem.105, 317 (1950).Google Scholar
  49. [46]
    Prigogine, I., in: Theoretical Physics and Biology (ed. by M. Marois). Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Co. 1969.Google Scholar
  50. [47]
    Winkler, R., Eigen, M.: in preparation.Google Scholar
  51. [48]
    Fresco, J. R., Alberts, B. M., Doty, P.: Nature188, 98 (1960).Google Scholar
  52. [49]
    Volterra, V.: Leçons sur la théorie mathématique de la lutte pour la vie. Paris 1931.Google Scholar
  53. [50]
    Kamke, E.: Differentialgleichungen, Lösungsmethoden und Lösungen. Leipzig 1944.Google Scholar
  54. [51]
    Haldane, J. B. S.: The Cause of Evolution. Longman, Green and Co. 1932.Google Scholar
  55. [52]
    Ross, R.: The Prevention of Malaria (1911), cf. Lotka, A. J.: Amer. J. Hygiene, January Suppl. (1923).Google Scholar
  56. [53]
    Lotka, A. J.: Elements of Mathematical Biology. New York: Dover Publications 1956.Google Scholar
  57. [54]
    Jordan, P.: Die Physik und das Geheimnis des organischen Lebens. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg u. Sohn 1945.Google Scholar
  58. [55]
    Ramakrishnan, A., in: Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. VIII/2, p. 524 (ed. by S. Flügge). Berlin: Springer 1959. Barlett, M. S.: Stochastic Processes. Cambridge 1955.Google Scholar
  59. [56]
    Ehrenfest, P., Ehrenfest, T.: Phys. Z.8, 311 (1907).Google Scholar
  60. [57]
    ter Haar, D., Green, C. D.: Proc. Phys. Soc. London A66, 153 (1953).Google Scholar
  61. [58]
    Kac, M.: Amer. Math. Monthly54, 369 (1947).Google Scholar
  62. [59]
    Klein, J. M.: Phys. Rev.103, 17 (1956).Google Scholar
  63. [60]
    Kohlrausch, K. W. F., Schrödinger, E.: Phys. Z.27, 306 (1926).Google Scholar
  64. [61]
    Münster, A., in: Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. VIII/2, p. 218 (ed. by S. Flügge). Berlin: Springer 1959.Google Scholar
  65. [62]
    Bartholomay, A. F.: Bull. Math. Biophys.20, 97 (1958);20, 175 (1958);21, 363 (1959).Google Scholar
  66. [63]
    Delbrück, M.: J. Chem. Phys.8, 120 (1940).Google Scholar
  67. [64]
    McQuarrie, D. A.: Stochastical Approach to Chemical Kinetics. London: Methuen 1967.Google Scholar
  68. [65]
    Doob, J. L.: Stochastic Processes. New York: J. Wiley 1953.Google Scholar
  69. [66]
    Eigen, M., Pörschke, D.: J. Mol. Biol.53, 123 (1970); cf. also part II (Ref. [84]) and part III (in press).Google Scholar
  70. [67]
    Eigen, M.: Nobel Symposium 5 on Fast Reactions and Primary Processes in Chemical Kinetics (ed. by S. Claesson). Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell Intersci. Publ. 1968.Google Scholar
  71. [68]
    Gibbs, J.: Advances in Chemical Physics (ed. by K. E. Shuler), pg. 185. New York: Interscience 1969.Google Scholar
  72. [69]
    Eigen, M., De Maeyer, L., in: Technique of Organic Chemistry, Vol. VII/2 (ed. by A. Weissberger). New York: Wiley Interscience 1963.Google Scholar
  73. [70]
    Kyogoku, Y., Lord, R. C., Rich, A.: Science154, 518 (1966); J. Amer. Chem. Soc.89, 496 (1967); Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.57, 250 (1967). cf. also: Voet, D., Rich, A.: Progr. Nucleic Acid Res. Molec. Biol.10, 183 (1970).Google Scholar
  74. [71]
    Küchler, E., Derkosch, J.: Z. Naturforsch.21b, 209 (1966).Google Scholar
  75. [72]
    Funck, Th.: unpublished results.Google Scholar
  76. [73]
    Eggers, F., Funck, Th., Hopmann, R.: unpublished results.Google Scholar
  77. [74]
    Pörschke, D.: Diplom-thesis. Göttingen 1966.Google Scholar
  78. [75]
    Pörschke, D.: Dissertation. Göttingen-Braunschweig 1968.Google Scholar
  79. [76]
    Podder, S. K.: Biochemistry (to be published).Google Scholar
  80. [77]
    Römer, R., Riesner, D., Coutts, S. M., Maass, G.: Europ. J. Biochem.15, 77, 85 (1970).Google Scholar
  81. [78]
    Römer, R., Riesner, D., Maass, G., Wintermayer, W., Thiebe, R., Zachau, H. G.: FEBS Letters5, 15, 23 (1969).Google Scholar
  82. [79]
    Philippsen, P., Thiebe, R., Wintermayer, W., Zachau, H. G.: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.33, 922 (1968).Google Scholar
  83. [80]
    Uhlenbeck, O. C., Baller, J., Doty, P.: Nature225, 508 (1970).Google Scholar
  84. [81]
    Lewis, J. B., Doty, P.: Nature225, 510 (1970).Google Scholar
  85. [82]
    Martin, F., Pörschke, D., Uhlenbeck, O.: unpublished results.Google Scholar
  86. [83]
    Applequist, J., Damle, V.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc.87, 1450 (1965).Google Scholar
  87. [84]
    Pörschke, D.: Biopolymers (in press).Google Scholar
  88. [85]
    Blow, D. M., Birktoft, J. J., Hartley, B. S.: Nature221, 337 (1969).Google Scholar
  89. [86]
    Fox, S.: Naturwissenschaften56, 1 (1969).Google Scholar
  90. [87]
    Berger, A., Schechter, I.: Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., LondonB 257, 249 (1970).Google Scholar
  91. [88]
    Lipmann, F., in: O. Meyerhoff Symposium, July 1970, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  92. [89]
    Monod, J., Wyman, J., Changeux, J. P.: J. Mol. Biol.12, 88 (1965).Google Scholar
  93. [90]
    Koshland, D. E., Nemethy, G., Filmer, D.: Biochemistry5, 365 (1966).Google Scholar
  94. [91a)]
    Kirschner, K., Eigen, M., Bittman, R., Voigt, B.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)56, 1661 (1966).Google Scholar
  95. [91b)]
    Kirschner, K.: Curr. Topics Microbiol. Immunol.44, 124 (1968).Google Scholar
  96. [92]
    Eigen, M., Schuster, P.: (to be published).Google Scholar
  97. [93]
    Oparin, A. I., in: The Origin of Prebiological Systems and of their Molecular Matrices (ed. by S. W. Fox). New York: Academic Press 1965, p. 331.Google Scholar
  98. [94]
    Fox, S. W., in: The Origin of Prebiological Systems and of their Molecular Matrices (ed. by S. W. Fox). New York: Academic Press 1965, p. 361.Google Scholar
  99. [95]
    Huang, C.: Biochemistry8, 344 (1969).Google Scholar
  100. [96]
    Träuble, H., Grell, E.: Neurosci. Res. Program Bull. 1971.Google Scholar
  101. [97]
    Tsofina, L. E., Liberman, E. A., Babakov, A. V.: Nature212, 681 (1966); cf. also Delbrück, M., in: The Neurosciences. 2nd Study Program, p. 677. New York: The Rockefeller Univ. Press 1970.Google Scholar
  102. [98]
    Woese, C. R.: The Genetic Code. New York: Harper and Row 1967.Google Scholar
  103. [99]
    Crick, F. H. C.: The Genetic Code (ref. to the original frame shift experiment of S. Brenner and F. H. C. Crick), Scientific American, October 1962, cf. also [35].Google Scholar
  104. [100]
    Crothers, D.: Personal communication (given at a seminar, Göttingen 1970).Google Scholar
  105. [101]
    Rechenberg, I.: Dissertation. Technical University, Berlin 1970.Google Scholar
  106. [102]
    Lipmann, F., in: The Origin of Prebiological Systems and of their Molecular Matrices, p. 259. New York: Academic Press 1965.Google Scholar
  107. [103]
    Edelman, M., Verma, I. M., Littauer, U. Z.: J. Mol. Biol.49, 67 (1970).Google Scholar
  108. [104]
    Woese, C. R.: Bio Science20, 471 (1970).Google Scholar
  109. [105]
    Spiegelman, S., in: The Neurosciences. 2nd Study Program (ed. by F. O. Schmitt). New York: The Rockefeller Univ. Press 1970.Google Scholar
  110. [106]
    Haruna, I., Nozu, K., Ohtaka, Y., Spiegelman, S.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA50, 905 (1963);54, 579 (1965).Google Scholar
  111. [107]
    Spiegelman, S., Haruna, I., Holland, I. B., Beaudreau, G., Mills, D. R.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA54, 919 (1965).Google Scholar
  112. [108]
    Levisohn, R., Spiegelman, S.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA60, 866 (1968).Google Scholar
  113. [109]
    Weber, H., Weissmann, Ch.: Chimia24, 35 (1970).Google Scholar
  114. [110]
    Bishop, D. H. L., Mills, D. R., Spiegelman, S.: Biochemistry7, 3744 (1968).Google Scholar
  115. [111]
    Levisohn, R., Spiegelman, S.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA63, 805 (1969).Google Scholar
  116. [112]
    Mills, D. R., Peterson, R. I., Spiegelman, S.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA58, 217 (1967).Google Scholar
  117. [113]
    Orgel, L. E.: (personal communication by S. Spiegelman).Google Scholar
  118. [114]
    Wittgenstein, L.: Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 7. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1922.Google Scholar
  119. [115]
    Carathéodory, C.: Math. Ann.67, 355 (1909).Google Scholar
  120. [116]
    Falk, G., Jung, H., in: Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. III/2, p. 119 (ed. by S. Flügge). Berlin: Springer 1959.Google Scholar
  121. [117]
    Monod, J.: Le Hasard et la Nécessité. Paris: Seuil 1970.Google Scholar
  122. [118]
    v. Neumann, J.: Zur Theorie der Gesellschaftsspiele. Math. Ann.100, 295 (1928).Google Scholar
  123. [119]
    v. Neumann, J., Morgenstern, O.: Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Princeton: Univ. Press 1953. Suchowitzki, S. I., Awdejewa, L. I.: Lineare und komplexe Programmierung. München: R. Oldenbourg 1969.Google Scholar
  124. [120]
    Lewontin, R. C.: J. Theoret. Biol.1, 382 (1961).Google Scholar
  125. [121]
    Warburton, F. E.: J. Theoret. Biol.16, 78 (1967).Google Scholar
  126. [122]
    Kimura, M.: Genet. Res. Camb.2, 127 (1961).Google Scholar
  127. [123]
    Mac Kay, D. M., in: Information, Mechanism and Meaning, chapter 12, pg. 132. Boston: M.I.T. Press 1969.Google Scholar
  128. [124]
    Waddington, C. H.: The Nature of Life. London: Unwin Books 1961.Google Scholar
  129. [125]
    Stent, G.: The Coming of the Golden Age. Garden City N. Y.: The Natural History Press 1969.Google Scholar
  130. [126]
    Kimura, M.: Nature217, 624 (1968).Google Scholar
  131. [127]
    King, J. L., Jukes, T. H.: Science164, 788 (1969).Google Scholar
  132. [128]
    Oparin, A. I.: Life: its Nature, Origin and Development. New York: Academic Press 1961.Google Scholar
  133. [129]
    v. Neumann, J.: Theory of self-reproducing automata. Urbana: Univ. Illinois Press 1966.Google Scholar
  134. [130]
    Wittgenstein, L.: Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 6.521. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1922.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manfred Eigen
    • 1
  1. 1.Karl-Friedrich-Bonhoeffer-InstitutMax-Planck-Institut für Biophysikalische ChemieGöttingen-Nikolausberg

Personalised recommendations