The grating-like spatially periodic structures are produced on the (100) surfaces of the single crystal silicon by the trains of 10 ps mode-locked ruby laser pulses at the wavelength of 694.3 nm. The periods and orientations of the structures are consistent with the model which involves the interference of the incident light with the surface electromagnetic wave excited through the coupling by surface roughness. Previously unappreciated elliptic ripple patterns are found and explained as the trails of the capillary wave excited on the molten Si surface due to the radially non-uniform deposition of energy.
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Lee, T.D., Lee, H.W., Kim, J.K. et al. Surface structures on crystalline silicon irradiated by 10 ps laser pulses at 694.3 nm. Appl. Phys. A 48, 475–479 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00619721