Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 90, Issue 1–2, pp 183–193 | Cite as

The use of reclaimed water in electric power stations and other industrial facilities

  • K. Anthony Selby
  • Paul R. Puckorius
  • Kris R. Helm


There has been much recent progress in the use of reclaimed water (treated municipal sewage plant effluent) for use in the cooling circuits of electric utility plants and other industrial facilities. In the greater Los Angeles area, reclaimed water has been used industrially for over 25 years but some major new projects have been initiated in 1995. By using reclaimed water, electric utility generating stations and other industrial facilities can reduce their need for water from higher quality water sources which can then be conserved for other purposes, such as municipal drinking water. This paper presents an overview of the factors required to successfully use reclaimed water as makeup to recirculating cooling systems. The primary focus is on the possible effects on equipment relative to corrosion, deposition and biological fouling and on the required changes in water treatment. Implementation of the use of this water in some new projects began in May 1995. The paper provides some of the latest available results on the use of this water. The pretreatment process for ammonia removal and chlorination practices is also discussed.


reclaimed water sewage plant effluent water reuse water recycling conservation refinery cooling electric utility cooling system 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Puckorius, P.R., Helm, K,R., Spurrell, C.: 1995,Reclaimed Water as Cooling Tower Makeup for Refinery/etrochemical Plants — Southern California's Activities and Time Table, Cooling Tower Institute.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    California Code of Regulations, CCR Title 22, Chapter 3.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moran, D.K., Johnston, B.A, Kolessar, K.M.: 1995,Corrosion Reduction in a Cooling System Utilizing Title 22 Reclaimed Water, International Water Conference.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thompson, D.H.: 1959,Corrosion 15, 433–436.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thompson, D.H.: 1961,Materials Research & Standards, 108–111.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dillon, C.P.: 1974,Materials Performance, 49.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lynes, W.: 1965,Corrosion 21, 125–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Puckorius, P.R., Strauss, S.D.: 1995,Power 140 (July), S.1-S.30.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Anthony Selby
    • 1
  • Paul R. Puckorius
    • 1
  • Kris R. Helm
    • 2
  1. 1.Evergreen
  2. 2.West Basin Municipal Water DistrictCarson

Personalised recommendations