Energy distributions of H+ and H− backscattered from graphite, stainless steel and molybdenum were measured for low incident beam energies (150∼1500 eV). The energy distributions of H− resembled that of H+, while the intensity ratio of H− to H+ varied from material to material and with the incident proton energy. A peak in the energy distribution moved to the “cutoff” energy with decreasing incident energy, which can be attributed to an increase in nuclear stopping cross section and a decrease in electronic stopping cross section. The ratio of the peak energy to the incident energy is related to the reduced energy ɛ of incident beam independent of target materials in the measured region (0.03<ɛ< 3.3).
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Saiki, K., Tanaka, S. & Koma, A. Energy distributions of low energy H ions backscattered from graphite, stainless steel, and molybdenum. Appl. Phys. A 27, 263–268 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00619090