Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Boron neutralization and hydrogen diffusion in silicon subjected to low-energy hydrogen implantation

  • 132 Accesses

  • 44 Citations

Abstract

Using the hydrogen neutralization of the boron acceptor, the diffusion of hydrogen is investigated in the temperature range 20 °–160 °C. The hydrogenation is performed by low-energy implantation. We observe a fast initial hydrogen migration, followed by a long-time diffusion phase that is described by an effective diffusion coefficientD eff=D 0 eff exp(−E a/kT) withD 0 eff–cm2s−1 andE a=(0.83±0.05) eV. No deeper hydrogen migration is detected for implantation times longer than − 30 min. Our data are explained by the build-up of a large amount of molecular hydrogen beneath the surface, which strongly hinders the transfer of the implanted hydrogen to the bulk. The thermal reactivation kinetics of the neutralized boron show a rapid initial step followed by a longtime thermally activated second order phase, which is limited by the recombination of hydrogen into molecules.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    S.J. Pearton, J.W. Corbett, T.S. Shi: Appl. Phys. A43, 153 (1987)

  2. 2.

    J. Chevallier, M. Aucouturier: Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1988) (to be published)

  3. 3.

    J.I. Pankove, P.J. Zanzucchi, C.W. Magee, G. Lucovsky: Appl. Phys. Lett.46, 421 (1985)

  4. 4.

    N.M. Johnson: Phys. Rev. B31, 5525 (1985)

  5. 5.

    Du Yong-Chang, Zhang Yu-Feng, Qin Guo-Gang, Weng Shi-Fu: Solid State Commun.55, 501 (1985)

  6. 6.

    M. Stavola, S.J. Pearton, J. Lopata, W.C. DautremontSmith: Appl. Phys. Lett.50, 1086 (1987)

  7. 7.

    M. Stutzmann: Phys. Rev. B35, 5921 (1987)

  8. 8.

    M. Stutzmann, C.P. Herrero: Appl. Phys. Lett.51, 1413 (1987)

  9. 9.

    M. Stutzmann, J. Harsanyi, A. Breitschwerdt, C.P. Herrero: Appl. Phys. Lett.52, 1667 (1988)

  10. 10.

    M.L.W. Thewalt, E.C. Lightowlers, J.I. Pankove: Appl. Phys. Lett.46, 689 (1985)

  11. 11.

    Th. Wichert, H. Skudlik, M. Deicher, G. Grübel, R. Keller, E. Recknagel, L. Song: Phys. Rev. Lett.59, 2087 (1987)

  12. 12.

    G.G. DeLeo, W.B. Fowler: Phys. Rev. B31, 6861 (1985)

  13. 13.

    L.V.C. Assali, J.R. Leite: Phys. Rev. Lett.55, 980 (1985)

  14. 14.

    L.V.C. Assali, J.R. Leite: Phys. Rev. Lett.56, 403 (1986)

  15. 15.

    J.M. Baranowski, J. Tatarkiewicz: Phys. Rev. B35, 7450 (1987)

  16. 16.

    A.D. Marwick, G.S. Oehrlein, N.M. Johnson: Phys. Rev. B36, 4539 (1987)

  17. 17.

    B. Beach Nielsen, J.U. Andersen, S.J. Pearton: Phys. Rev. Lett.60, 321 (1988)

  18. 18.

    A.A. Bonapasta, A. Lapiccirella, N. Tomassini, M. Capizzi: Phys. Rev. B36, 6228 (1987)

  19. 19.

    S.C.S. Pan, C.T. Sah: J. Appl. Phys.60, 156 (1986)

  20. 20.

    C.T. Sah, S.C.S. Pan, C.C.H. Hsu: J. Appl. Phys.57, 5148 (1985)

  21. 21.

    M.W. Hörn, J.M. Heddleson, S.J. Fonash: Appl. Phys. Lett.51, 490 (1987)

  22. 22.

    L.L. Kazmerski: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 1287 (1985)

  23. 23.

    W.L. Hansen, S.J. Pearton, E.E. Haller: Appl. Phys. Lett.44, 606 (1984)

  24. 24.

    C.H. Seager, R.A. Anderson, J.K.G. Panitz: J. Mater. Res.2, 96 (1987)

  25. 25.

    A. Mogro-Campero, R.P. Love, R. Schubert: J. Electrochem. Soc.: Solid State Sci. Techn.132, 2006 (1985)

  26. 26.

    S.J. Pearton: Mat. Res. Soc. Proc.: InOxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Crystalline Silicon, ed. by J.C. Mikkelsen, Jr., S.J. Pearton, J.W. Corbett, S.J. Pennycook (Mat. Tes. Soc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1986) Vol. 59, p. 457

  27. 27.

    A. Van Wieringen, N. Warmoltz: Physica22, 849 (1956)

  28. 28.

    R.N. Hall:12th Int. Conf. Defects Semicond., Proc. ed. by L.C. Kimerling and J.M. Parsey (Metallurgical Soc. AIME, Wavendale, PA 1985) Vol.14a, p. 737

  29. 29.

    M. Capizzi, A. Mittiga, A. Frova:18th Int. Conf. Defects Semicond., Proc. ed. by O. Engström (World Scientific, Singapore 1987) Vol. 2, p. 995

  30. 30.

    N.M. Johnson: Appl. Phys. Lett.47, 874 (1985)

  31. 31.

    N.M. Johnson, M.D. Moyer: Appl. Phys. Lett.46, 787 (1985)

  32. 32.

    J.I. Pankove, C.W. Magee, R.O. Wance: Appl. Phys. Lett.47, 748 (1985)

  33. 33.

    N.M. Johnson, C. Herring, D.J. Chadi: Phys. Rev. Lett.56, 769 (1986)

  34. 34.

    J.I. Pankove, D.E. Carlson, J.E. Berkeyheiser, R.O. Wance: Phys. Rev. Lett.51, 2224 (1983)

  35. 35.

    J.C. Mikkelsen, Jr.: Appl. Phys. Lett.46, 882 (1985)

  36. 36.

    ST. Pantelides: Appl. Phys. Lett.50, 995 (1987)

  37. 37.

    M. Capizzi, A. Mittiga: Appl. Phys. Lett.50, 918 (1987)

  38. 38.

    A.J. Tavendale, D. Alexiev, A.A. Williams: Appl. Phys. Lett.47, 316 (1985)

  39. 39.

    A.J. Tavendale, A.A. Williams, S.J. Pearton: Appl. Phys. Lett.48, 590 (1986)

  40. 40.

    A.J. Tavendale, A.A. Williams, D. Alexiev, S.J. Pearton: In [26]: Vol. 59, p. 469

  41. 41.

    T. Zundel, E. Courcelle, A. Mesli, J.C. Muller, P. Siffert: Appl. Phys. A40, 67 (1986)

  42. 42.

    A. Chari, P. de Mierry, M. Aucouturier:Proc. E. C. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., 7th Seville, Proc. ed. by A. Goetzberger, W. Polz, G. Willeke (Reidel, Dordrecht 1986) p. 860

  43. 43.

    A.E. Jaworowski, L.S. Wielunski, G. Bambakidis: In [26]: Vol. 59, p. 501

  44. 44.

    J.C. Muller, E. Courcelle, D. Salles, P. Siffert: Nuclear Instrum. Methods, Phys. Res. B6, 394 (1985)

  45. 45.

    F.G. Demond, S., Kalbitzer, H. Mannsperger, G. Müller: Nuclear Instrum. Methods168, 69 (1980)

  46. 46.

    A. Barhdadi, J.P. Ponpon, A. Grob, J.J. Grob, A. Mesli, J.C. Muller, P. Siffert: Vacuum36, 705 (1986)

  47. 47.

    J.C. Muller, Y. Ababou, A. Barhdadi, E. Courcelle, S. Unamuno, D. Salles, P. Siffert: Solar Cells17, 201 (1986)

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zundel, T., Mesli, A., Muller, J.C. et al. Boron neutralization and hydrogen diffusion in silicon subjected to low-energy hydrogen implantation. Appl. Phys. A 48, 31–40 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00617761

Download citation

PACS

  • 66.30jt
  • 61.70Wp