Picosecond time-resolved reflectivity measurements on bare silicon surfaces and silicon surfaces with oxide layers reveal very fast heat diffusion and material evaporation on subnanosecond time scales. With a thick oxide layer resolidification of a molten silicon surface can take place in a few hundred picoseconds. At high laser fluences, vaporization processes take only a couple of 100 ps.
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Liu, J.M., Lompre, L.A., Kurz, H. et al. Phenomenology of picosecond heating and evaporation of silicon surfaces coated with SiO2 layers. Appl. Phys. A 34, 25–29 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00617570