Cleaved silicon (111) faces were studied with reflection x-ray topography using a high resolving double-crystal-diffractometer. Three types of defects due to cleavage process could be observed: long-range strain due to overlap cracks along macroscopic cleavage steps, a homogeneous decrease of intensity within the inclined portion of step mainly due to optical refraction of x-rays and point-like defects along some macroscopic cleavage steps, which develop only after heat treatment. The findings are important with respect to interpretation of electrical measurements, since all types of defects may influence the surfaces state density decisively.
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Gronwald, K.-., Henzler, M. X-ray topography study of the cleaved Si-(111)-face. Appl. Phys. A 34, 253–261 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00616582