Oxidation of Metals

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 11–47 | Cite as

The high-temperature oxidation of nickel-20 wt. % chromium alloys containing dispersed oxide phases

  • J. Stringer
  • B. A. Wilcox
  • R. I. Jaffee


Alloys of Ni-20 wt. % Cr containing 3 vol. % of a dispersed oxide phase have been prepared by a mechanical alloying method and oxidized in oxygen at 100 Torr in the temperature range of 900 to 1200°C. It appears that the dispersed oxide has four distinct effects on the oxidation: (1) the selective oxidation of chromium to form a continuous protective Cr2O3scale is promoted; (2) the rate of growth of Cr2O3is reduced compared with particle-free alloys; (3) the adhesion of the Cr2O3is greatly improved; and (4)the scale-forming reaction appears to be at the scale-metal interface in alloys containing a dispersion, but at the scale-oxygen interface in alloys without a dispersion. It appears that the nature of the dispersed oxide is not important, since very similar effects can be obtained with ThO2,Y2O3,and CeO2dispersions. It is demonstrated that a logical deduction from this evidence is that the growth of Cr2O3scales on dispersion-free systems must involve short-circuit diffusion of chromium through the scale, and that it seems probable that an effect of the dispersion must be to retard or eliminate this short-circuit process. It is suggested that the oxide particles act as nucleation centers for the oxide, thus reducing the oxide grain size; and it is shown that this simple hypothesis is sufficient to explain a number of the experimental observations.


Chromium Y2O3 Mechanical Alloy Oxide Particle Selective Oxidation 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Stringer
    • 1
  • B. A. Wilcox
    • 2
  • R. I. Jaffee
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgy and Materials ScienceUniversity of LiverpoolEngland
  2. 2.Battelle Columbus LaboratoriesMetal Science GroupColumbus

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