Potential cauchy-poisson waves generated by submarine eruptions of kick 'em Jenny volcano
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Kick 'em Jenny is the only known currently active submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles. The volcano has erupted at least 10 times since first being discovered in 1939 and the summit has shoaled from a depth of ∼232 m in 1962 to its present-day depth of ∼150 m. Kick 'em Jenny is located in a province of explosive volcanism, has a known history of explosive eruptions and erupts magma of an explosive type. Future eruptions are likely to become increasingly more violent as the effect of the overlying water pressure becomes less. A preliminary study (Smith and Shepherd, 1993) suggests that Kick 'em Jenny is a prime candidate for tsunamigenic eruptions on a potentially hazardous scale, possibly affecting the whole of the eastern Caribbean region.
The classic approach to problems of water waves generated by sudden disturbances of the free surface makes use of the Cauchy-Poisson-Lamb theory. A large number of theoretical developments to this theory have been made for specific forms of surface disturbance. A development by Unoki and Nakano (1953a, b) considers both two- and three-dimensional Cauchy-Poisson waves generated by finite initial elevations and impulses applied to a free surface of infinitely deep water. Unoki and Nakano's results compared well to the wave systems recorded following submarine eruptions of the Myojinsho Reef volcano in 1952–53.
Given the similarity of the two situations, Unoki and Nakano's theory is applied to Kick 'em Jenny to provide estimates of potential Cauchy-Poisson wave heights throughout the eastern Caribbean for a range of eruption magnitudes. The results show that, although the waves generated are unlikely to pose much of a threat to the eastern Caribbean as a whole, they should be considered a hazard to the islands immediately adjacent to the volcano including Grenada, the Grenadines, and St Vincent.
Key wordsVolcanic hazards tsunami Cauchy-Poisson wave submarine volcano Lesser Antilles
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