Advertisement

Oxidation of Metals

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 159–180 | Cite as

The effect of cerium on the oxidation of Ni-50Cr alloys

  • G. M. Ecer
  • G. H. Meier
Article

Abstract

The oxidation behavior of Ni-50Cr alloys with minor cerium additions was studied between 800 and 1100° Cin oxygen, air, and oxygen at reduced partial pressures. Optical and scanning electron metallography, X-ray diffraction, and electron-probe microanalysis techniques were used to characterize the changes in scale and substrate morphology and to identify the oxidation products. Platinum markers were used to determine the direction of ionic transport. The effects of cold work, initial alloy phase distribution, and cyclic oxidation were also studied. The Cr2O3scales on the cerium-containing alloys grew while being largely separated from the metal substrate. Oxidation rate, oxide grain growth, and the tendency of scales to spall on cooling were reduced substantially with increasing alloy cerium content. The first two effects are suggested to result from the interaction of cerium ions and cerium oxide particles with oxide grain boundaries in reducing grain-boundary diffusion and oxide-boundary mobility. The third is suggested to result from the thinner, finer-grained scales formed on the Ce-containing alloys.

Key words

nickel-chromium alloys oxidation high temperature cerium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S. D. Sehgal and D. Swarup,Trans. Ind. Inst. Met. 15, 177 (1962).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Nakayama and Y. Watanabe,Trans. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn. 8, 259 (1968).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. J. Felten,J. Electrochem. Soc. 108, 490 (1961).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. E. Antill and K. A. Peakall,J. Iron Steel Inst. 205, 1136 (1967).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. C. Wood and J. Bousted,Corros. Sci. 8, 719 (1968).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Nakamura,Metall. Trans. 5, 909 (1974).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. M. Francis and W. H. Whitlow,J. Iron Steel Inst. 204, 355 (1966).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. M. Francis and J. A. Jutson,J. Iron Steel Inst. 207, 639 (1969).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    V. K. Farafonov, M. M. Shteinberg, Z. G. Tret'yakova, and V. V. Voinor,Metal Sci. Heat Treat. 294 (1967).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Hoch, V. Masarik, and V. Chihal,Revue de Metall. 67, 113 (1970).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Ignatov and R. Shamgunova,NASA Tech. Transl. F-49 (1961).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. C. Hagel,Trans. Am. Soc. Met. 56, 583 (1963).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. S. Giggins and F. S. Pettit,Metall. Trans. 2, 1071 (1971).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. H. Davis, H. C. Graham, and I. A. Kvernes,Oxid. Met. 3, 431 (1971).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. R. Wallwork and A. Z. Hed,Oxid. Met. 3, 229 (1971).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Stringer, B. A. Wilcox, and R. I. Jaffee,Oxid. Met. 5, 11 (1972).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    I. G. Wright, B. A. Wilcox, and R. I. Jaffee,Oxid. Met. 9, 275 (1975).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    I. G. Wright and B. A. Wilcox,Oxid. Met. 8, 283 (1974).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Stringer and I. G. Wright,Oxid. Met. 5, 59 (1972).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. P. Whittle and J. Stringer, “The Oxidation Behavior of Cobalt Base Alloys Containing Dispersed Oxides Formed by Internal Oxidation,” inProperties of High Temperature Alloys, Z. A. Foroulis and F. S. Pettit, eds. (The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, N.J., 1977), p. 261.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. U. Seybolt,Corros. Sci. 6, 263 (1966).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Stringer, A. Z. Hed, G. R. Wallwork, and B. A. Wilcox,Corros. Sci. 12, 625 (1972).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. M. Ecer and G. H. Meier,Oxid. Met. 13, 119 (1979).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. K. Tien and F. S. Pettit,Metall. Trans. 3, 1587 (1972).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. K. Tien and W. H. Rand,Scr. Metall. 6, 55 (1972).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    W. C. Johnson,Metall. Trans. 8A, 1413 (1977).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    W. D. Kingery, H. K. Bowen, and D. R. Uhlmann,Introduction to Ceramics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1976), p. 58.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    H. Gleiter and B. Chalmers,High-Angle Grain Boundaries (Pergamon Press, New York, 1972), pp. 77–178.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    F. A. Golightly, F. H. Stott, and G. C. Wood,Oxid. Met. 10, 163 (1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. M. Ecer
    • 2
  • G. H. Meier
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringUniversity of PittsburghPittsburgh
  2. 2.Westinghouse Research LaboratoriesPittsburgh

Personalised recommendations