Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The relative efficacy of monopolar vs. bipolar electrodes in stimulation-produced analgesia

Summary

Focal brain stimulation (FBS) of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) produces reliable anti-nociception. The use of different electrode configurations alters the distribution of excitation as well as the locus of cells being stimulated, making it difficult to compare results across laboratories. This study compared the analgesic properties of bipolar electrodes delivering biphasic current and monopolar electrodes delivering either a biphasic or a monophasic current to the ventral PAG. Naloxone reversibility of the analgesia was also tested. Results indicate that biphasic current with either monopolar or bipolar electrodes is more likely to elicit analgesia than monophasic current using monopolar electrodes. Naloxone reversed the analgesia produced by the monopolar/monophasic model, but only attenuated the monopolar/biphasic FBS and did not affect the analgesia produced by the bipolar/biphasic configuration. Biphasic current delivered through bipolar electrodes results in the sequential activation of different cell populations. Use of bipolar electrodes may widen the distribution of excitation beyond that of either monopolar configuration. Thus, a wider neural field of excitation may cause a bleedover of the field of stimulation into two systems (one opiate and one nonopiate).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Baskin DS, Mehler WR, Hosobuchi Y, Richardson DE, Adams JE, Flitter MA (1986) Autopsy analysis of the safety, efficacy and cartography of electrical stimulation of the central gray in humans. Brain Res 371:231–236

  2. Cannon JT, Prieto GJ, Lee A, Liebeskind JC (1982) Evidence for opioid and non-opioid forms of stimulation-produced analgesia in the rat. Brain Res 243:315–321

  3. Fardin F, Oliveras J-L, Besson J-M (1984a) A reinvestigation of the analgesic effects induced by stimulation of the peria-queductal gray matter in the rat. I. The production of behavioral side effects together with analgesia. Brain Res 306:105–123

  4. Fardin V, Oliveras J-L, Besson J-M (1984b) A reinvestigation of the analgesic effects induced by stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter in the rat. II. Differential characteristics of the analgesia induced by ventral and dorsal PAG stimulation. Brain Res 306:125–139

  5. Fields HL, (1988) Sources of variability in the sensation of pain. Pain 33:195–200

  6. Klatt DS, Guinan MJ, Culhane ES, Carstens E, Watkins LR (1988) The dorsal raphe nucleus: a re-evaluation of its proposed role in opiate analgesia systems. Brain Res 447:246–252

  7. Mayer D, Wolfle T, Akil H, Carder B, Liebeskind J (1971) Analgesia from electrical stimulation in the brainstem of the rat. Science 174:1351–1354

  8. Pellegrino L, Pellegrino A, Cushman A (1981) A stereotaxic atlas of the rat brain. Plenum Press, New York

  9. Ranck Jr JB (1985) Which elements are excited in electrical stimulation of the mammalian nervous system. Brain Res 98:417–440

  10. Ranck JB (1981) Extracellular stimulation. In: Patterson MM, Kesner RP (eds) Electrical stimulation research techniques. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–59

  11. Reynolds D (1969) Surgery in the rat during electrical analgesia induced by focal brain stimulation. Science 164:444–445

  12. Thorn BE, Applegate L, Johnson SW (1989) The relative efficacy of periaqueductal gray subdivisions and adjacent loci in ability to elicit analgesia and their naloxone reversibility. Behav Neurosci 103:644–665

  13. Yaksh TL (1979) Central nervous system sites mediating opiate analgesia. Adv Pain Res Ther 3:411–426

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to B. E. Thorn.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Thorn, B.E., Applegate, L. & Jones, K. The relative efficacy of monopolar vs. bipolar electrodes in stimulation-produced analgesia. Exp Brain Res 79, 266–270 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00608235

Download citation

Key words

  • Stimulation-produced analgesia
  • Electrical brain stimulation
  • Naloxone
  • Endorphins
  • Electrode configuration
  • Rats